Physicists around the world looked on with a sense of invigorated hope as the Large Hadron Collider was restarted on Sunday after being shutdown for a crucial upgrade, almost two years ago on February 14, 2013.
“Congratulations,” Rolf-Dieter Heuer, the director general at Cern, a particle physics lab near Geneva, told thousands of staff from the control room of the LHC. “Now the hard work starts.”
— CERNpress (@CERNpress) April 5, 2015
Even though it will take almost a month for results of the first collisions to appear, high on the wishlist of physicists during current run is discovering dark matter, the invisible material that makes up more than 25 per cent of the universe. Also equally important are discovering the hidden extra dimensions that would explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces of nature, and an explanation for why the world around us is not made from anti-matter.
— CERN (@CERN) April 5, 2015
The team of scientists will be well equipped with the new modifications of the LHC . The collider has been fitted with new safer magnets with Quench protection which dissipate energy in a more controlled way. But the most exciting change for the scientists will be the increased energy of the proton beam. LHC is now capable of circulating beams of 13 Trillion electron Volts(TeV) which is five notches above the earlier 8 TeV . This will result in more energetic collisions bettering the chances of finding newer particles. To increase the rate of collisions the lag between two proton packets has been decreased to 25 nanoseconds from 50 nanoseconds.
Along with these changes scientists have also tried to make the collider safer by using radiation resistant electronics . The interiors of the vacuum tube has been covered by non-evaporating getter which inhibits the electron cloud buildup inside it.
The collider which first fired the protons in 2008 has helped scientists to understand the universe better by the discovery of the Higgs boson particle.
BY Chandan Kumar