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UPSC Key-September 19, 2022: Why you should read ‘Dalits’ or ‘Sanskritization and Conversion’ or ‘PM PRANAM’ for UPSC CSE

Exclusive for Subscribers from Monday to Friday: The Indian Express UPSC Key September 19, 2022 will help you prepare for the Civil Services and other competitive examinations with cues on how to read and understand content from the most authoritative news source in India.

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Important topics and their relevance in UPSC CSE exam for September 19, 2022. If you missed the September 16, 2022 UPSC key from the Indian Express, read it here


Quotas: Govt to set up panel to study status of SC converts to Christianity and Islam


Subscriber Only Stories

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies I: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story- In a move with far-reaching implications, the Centre is all set to constitute a national commission to study the social, economic and educational status of members of Scheduled Castes, or Dalits, who converted to religions other than Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism. Apart from mapping the changes in status and situation of Dalits who have converted to Christianity or Islam, the proposed commission will also study the impact of adding more members to the current SC list.

For Your Information-The Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1950, under Article 341 stipulates that no person professing a religion different from Hinduism, Sikhism or Buddhism can be deemed to be a member of a Scheduled Caste. The original order under which only Hindus were classified as SCs was amended in 1956 to include Sikhs, and in 1990 to cover Buddhists.

• The constitution of India talks about affirmative action for the upliftment and betterment of vulnerable sections in the Indian Society. What are they?


• The move to set up such a commission assumes significance in the wake of several petitions pending before the Supreme Court seeking SC reservation benefits for Dalits who converted to Christianity or Islam.

• What drives the Dalits to convert to Christianity or Islam?

• Who are Dalits?

• Why they are called Dalits?

• Genesis of the term ‘Dalit’?

• What is present conditions of Dalits in Indian Society in terms of social and economic perspective?


• Why untouchability towards Dalit community still prevalent even after affirmative actions ensured by the highest authority that is by the Constitution of India??

• Conversion and Sanskritization-Compare and Contrast

• What is Sanskritization explain with example?

• Who gave Sanskritization concept?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Beyond Conversion and Sanskritisation: Articulating an Alternative Dalit Agenda in East Punjab

Centre, states tussle over a centralised market for electricity


Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-A FRESH slugfest between the Centre and states is brewing in the country’s power sector, the trigger being a plan by the Union government to jettison the existing decentralised, voluntary pool-based electricity market in favour of a radically different mandatory pool model on a pan-India basis.

• What is the Market-Based Economic Dispatch (MBED) mechanism?


• How Market-Based Economic Dispatch (MBED) mechanism, will mark a clear shift from a decentralised model followed till now, which has been buttressed by the Electricity Act 2003 and follow-on reforms?

• Centralised vs decentralised power model-Know, understand and brainstorm

• Market-Based Economic Dispatch (MBED) mechanism-Know its merit and demerit

• Why Market-Based Economic Dispatch (MBED) mechanism is “inconsistent with the constitutional provisions, existing legislative framework and market structure”?


• But, Market-Based Economic Dispatch (MBED) mechanism is a way forward to deepen power markets in line with the Centre’s ‘One Nation, One Grid, One Frequency, One Price’ formula-How it will strengthen federal structure?

• Power is in the Concurrent List or Union List or in state list of the Constitution?


Do you Know-India has a diversified electricity market ranging from long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs), cross border PPAs, short and medium term bilateral, day-ahead power exchange, and a real-time online market. A major percentage of the installed power capacity –over 87 per cent – is tied up under long term PPAs of around 25 years. The remaining 13 per cent is transacted in the power markets, with nearly half of this over the power exchanges and the remaining through short-term and medium-term bilateral deals.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Electricity Amendment Bill 2022: A mixed bag

📍Market-based economic despatch model risks a legal tangle

To curb use of chemical fertilisers, Govt to give nod to PM PRANAM


Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story– The Union government intends to launch a scheme — named PM PRANAM — to reduce the use of chemical fertilisers by incentivising states. The proposed scheme, short for PM Promotion of Alternate Nutrients for Agriculture Management Yojana, also aims to bring down the subsidy burden on chemical fertilisers, which is estimated to reach Rs 2.25 lakh crore in 2022-23 — 39 per cent higher than last year’s figure of Rs 1.62 lakh crore.

• What is Fertiliser?

• Fertiliser Consumption in India

• Why PM PRANAM assumes significance in view of the sharp increase in the overall fertiliser requirement in the country during the last five years?

• But first of all, you need to know in detail about PM PRANAM-highlights, features, significance, issues, challenges and other alternative to this proposed scheme

• How PM PRANAM will be financed?

• PM PRANAM and direct benefit transfer system in fertilisers -compare and contrast

• What is integrated fertiliser management system?

• Soil Health Card and neem-coated urea-know about them

• Know more about Fertiliser Sector in India and Related Policies

• Fertiliser comes under Union List, State List or Concurrent List?

• know the basics-Fertiliser Subsidy

• Subsidy Mechanism in the form of Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT)-know more in detail

For Your Information-Official records show that the actual expenditure on fertiliser subsidy was 1.27 lakh crore in 2020-21. In the Union Budget 2021-22, the government budgeted an amount of Rs 79,530 crore, which increased to Rs 1.40 lakh crore in the revised estimates (RE). However, the final figure of fertiliser subsidy touched Rs 1.62 lakh crore in 2021-22.

Do You Know-In the current financial year (2022-23) the government has allocated Rs 1.05 lakh crore. The Fertiliser Minister has said that the fertiliser subsidy figure could cross Rs 2.25 lakh crore during this year. The total requirement of four fertilisers, Urea, DAP (Di-ammonium Phosphate), MOP (Muriate of potash), NPKS (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) in the country increased by 21 per cent to 640.27 lakh metric tonnes (LMT) in 2021-22 from 528.86 lakh metric tonnes in 2017-18.

• Primary (Macro) Nutrients and Secondary (Micro) Nutrients in Fertiliser-Know the difference

• What is the fertiliser requirement of a typical farmer?

• How much subsidy does a farmer really get per acre?

• What is Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP)?

• NPK in Fertilisers-Have you heard of ‘NPK’? What is NPK and Its Ideal Ratio in Fertilisers?

• Advantages of fertigation in agriculture?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍What is the PM PRANAM scheme, likely to be introduced by the govt soon?

📍Explained: The One Nation One Fertiliser scheme, the Govt’s logic, and some immediate risks

📍System of Fertilizer Subsidy


Special tourist train for ‘Ambedkar Circuit’: Reddy


Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story– Union Tourism and Culture Minister G Kishan Reddy on Sunday announced a special tourist train to cover the “Ambedkar Circuit”.
Inaugurating a three-day conference of state tourism ministers in Dharamshala, Reddy said, “As many as 3,000 special railway coaches have been reserved for the promotion of tourism circuits. Like the Ramayana and Buddhist Circuits, a special train will be run on the Ambedkar Circuit.”

• Tourism Policy in India-Origin

• Tourism policy 1982-Key Features

• Tourism sector is in the Union List, State List or Concurrent list of the Constitution of India?

• Various initiatives and Schemes by Government of India to boost tourism in India-List out the important ones

• What is Swadesh Darshan Scheme?

• The Ministry of Tourism developed certain thematic circuits in the country for the development of tourism-What are those thematic circuits?

• Different themes for thematic circuits-do you know the names of different thematic circuits

• What is Ambedkar Circuit?

• Importance of Tourism Sector in in the Indian Economy

• “Tourism is one of the most neglected sectors in India”-discuss

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍From popularity among Dalits to promotion of tourism: Buddhism’s new life in India

📍Tourism ministry revamps its Swadesh Darshan scheme, aims for sustainable infra


Out of tune


Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilisation, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story– Ashok Gulati writes: An orchestra of multiple instruments is required to deal with the continuing high inflation

• The rise in inflation is “attributable to what factors?

• How first Covid-19, then the Russia and Ukraine conflict and now climate change (heat wave) is impacting Indian Economy?

• Why RBI is failing to meet the inflation target recently?

• What are the steps taken by RBI to control inflation?

• According to Shankar Acharya, the Chief Economic Advisor under three governments, “fiscal policy needs tightening as the fiscal deficit has crossed 10 per cent of GDP (Centre and states combined) for three years in a row. This is too high and is causing inflationary pressures, besides being loose monetary policy”-Discuss

• “Inflation management requires an orchestrated play of many policy tools”-What are those policy tools?

• What is Monetary policy?

• What is the primary objective of the monetary policy?

• Under Section 45ZB of the amended (in 2016) RBI Act, 1934, the central government is empowered to constitute a six-member Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)- What is the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)?

• The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is a Statutory Body-True or False?

• What is the composition of Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)?

• The amended RBI Act, 1934 provides for the inflation target be set by the Government of India, in consultation with the Reserve Bank, once in every five years-What is inflation target?

• What are the various Instruments of Monetary Policy to control Inflation?

Know these Terms-Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR), Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR), Open Market Operations (OMOs), Market Stabilisation Scheme (MSS), Repo Rate, Reverse Repo Rate, Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF), Marginal Standing Facility (MSF) Bank Rate

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Need to keep inflationary expectations firmly anchored: RBI article

📍Reserve Bank’s policy thrust: Monetary tightening to tackle inflation



Preliminary Examination: General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change

Main Examination: General Studies III: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story– Ravi Chellam writes: The scientific foundation of the plan to introduce African cheetahs in India is flawed. It also disregards our national conservation priorities, makes exaggerated conservation claims

• What is the Reintroduction of the cheetah in India plan?

• The Reintroduction of the Cheetah in India is the first such trans-continental project which is taking off-Know how Reintroduction of the cheetah in India plan is executed?

• Cheetah in India- Background

• Extinction of Cheetah from Indian Landscape-know the reasons

• Action Plan for Introduction of Cheetah in India-Important Highlights

• According to the author, “The Action Plan, which is the basis for implementing this project, has weak scientific foundations”-Discuss

• It is well established that even in the best of habitats (for example, the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem straddling Kenya and Tanzania), cheetahs exist in very low densities of around 1 per 100 sq km. Does Kuno National Park, offers the best habitats for Cheetahs?

• How will a self-sustaining, wild and free-ranging population of cheetahs be able to establish itself in India when there is no suitable habitat of sufficient size for them to do so?

• One of the biological objectives of this project is to “re-establish the ecosystem function role of the cheetah in representative areas of its former range”. For cheetahs to be able to play this role, they need to exist in sufficient numbers and be present and operate over extensive areas-How the introduced cheetahs will be able to effectively play the expected role of a top predator to impact ecosystem function.

• “There is no recorded instance of introduction of cheetahs succeeding in unfenced areas, which is what is being planned in India. The scientific foundation of the Action Plan to introduce African cheetahs in India is flawed”-Critically analyse the statement

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Explained: How cheetahs went extinct in India, and the plan to reintroduce them into the wild

📍What it takes to successfully move big cats like cheetahs out of their natural habitats


The benefits of stockpiling


Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story– In 2013, between May 1 and August 28, the rupee plunged from 53.67 to 68.81 to the US dollar. During this period, the country’s foreign exchange reserves fell from $294.31 billion to $275.49 billion, even as the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) hiked its benchmark lending rate by 300 basis points, from 7.25% to 10.25%. Cut to the last one year. Since October 29, 2021, the rupee has depreciated hardly 6% (from 74.94 to 79.69 to the dollar), and the RBI’s repo rate has gone up only 140 basis points (4% to 5.4%). However, this has come with a larger forex reserve depletion from a peak of $642.02 billion to $550.87 billion as of September 9 this year.

• 2013 was a crisis year and so is 2022. But, why the current crisis is worse than nine years ago?

• The 2013 crisis and Present Crisis-Differentiate between the two

• How the other ‘F’: food contributing more in the present forex crisis?

• “India’s economic growth has traditionally been hobbled by the three ‘Fs’: forex, food and fuel. Stockpiling has helped mitigate problems from the first two, but there’s no solution yet to the vulnerabilities from oil, gas, and coal”-Analyse the Statement

• What are the reasons for Current Depreciation of Indian Rupee?

• What will be the impact, and will exporters benefit?

• What are accounting rate of return (ARR) rates?

• What is meant by foreign exchange reserves?

• Which country has highest forex reserves as of now? How do foreign exchange reserves increase?

• What Is a Currency Reserve?

• Currency Reserve is a part of foreign exchange reserves?

• What is Current account deficit (CAD)?

• How Current Account Deficit and Fiscal Deficit reinforces each other?

• In a significant move, RBI has allowed banks temporarily to raise fresh Foreign Currency Non-Resident Bank i.e., FCNR(B) and Non-Resident External (NRE) deposits without reference to the current regulations on interest rates, with effect from July 7-Why this is significant?

• What is the Purchasing Managers’ Index?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Currency Reserve

📍Explained: Why has the forex kitty dipped $44.73 billion in 8 months?

Colour Revolutions, why they worry China


Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Chinese President Xi Jinping on Friday (September 16) appealed to Russia, India, and other members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) to cooperate with each other in order to prevent foreign powers from destabilising their countries by inciting “colour revolutions”

• What are “colour revolutions”?

• What were the ‘Orange Revolution’, Tulip Revolution and Jasmine Revolution?

• According to experts, the Colour Revolutions are not that successful-how far you agree with the same?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Yellow, green, saffron: Colours of protests around the world

Essential medicines list: ensuring supply and keeping prices in check


Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- The Union Health Ministry recently released the new National List of Essential Medicine (NLEM)-2022, revising it after a seven-year period.

The new list, issued on September 13, has included more cancer medicines, newer diabetes drugs, and even four drugs that are under patent.

• What is National List of Essential Medicine (NLEM)?

• How does the NLEM make the medicines affordable?

• Which drugs were removed from the NLEM-2022?

Do You Know-The NLEM was first formulated in 1996 and was revised in 2003, 2011, and 2015. It takes into account any changing profile of diseases, newer drugs available in the market, and changing treatment protocols. The price of medicines in the list is controlled by the Centre and cannot be changed by companies themselves. Many of these medicines are also available free at government health facilities.

• National List of Essential Medicine (NLEM) in India-Know in detail

• Who is National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA)?

• National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) and National List of Essential Medicine (NLEM)-Connect the dots

• Why National List of Essential Medicine (NLEM) is significant?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍In a first, regulator hikes prices of essential medicines

📍List of essential drugs updated; new diabetes, anti-cancer drugs added


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First published on: 19-09-2022 at 20:03 IST
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