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UPSC Key- November 28, 2022: Why you should read ‘China’s Zero-Covid policy’ or ‘National Interest’ or ‘Juvenile Delinquency’ for UPSC CSE

Exclusive for Subscribers from Monday to Friday: The Indian Express UPSC Key November 28, 2022 will help you prepare for the Civil Services and other competitive examinations with cues on how to read and understand content from the most authoritative news source in India.

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Important topics and their relevance in UPSC CSE exam for November 28, 2022. If you missed the November 21, 2022 to November 25, 2022 UPSC key from the Indian Express, read it here

FRONT PAGE

Small is good: Mudra loan NPAs at just 3.3% in 7 yrs

Syllabus:

Subscriber Only Stories

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies III: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- In over seven years since launch, borrowers of Mudra loans – essentially micro and small enterprises – have paid their EMIs (equated monthly instalments) to banks. Non-performing assets of banks for Mudra loans – including those extended during the Covid-19 pandemic when small enterprises were the worst hit – are lower than the average NPAs of the sector as a whole, data obtained under the Right to Information Act reveals.

• What are MUDRA loans?

• What is a bad loan?

• Why MUDRA has been set up?

For Your Information-The Micro Units Development & Refinance Agency (MUDRA) was launched on April 8, 2015, by Prime Minister Narendra Modi to provide loans up to Rs 10 lakh to non-corporate, non-farm, small and micro enterprises. Called the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana, loans are given under three categories-Shishu up to Rs 50,000, Kishore Rs 50,001 to Rs 5 lakh, and Tarun from Rs 5 lakh to Rs 10 lakh. Mudra loans do not require any collateral/ security, and hence were perceived to be very risky.

Do You Know-The gross NPAs of the banking sector in the previous six years was much higher than in 2021-22; it was 7.3 per cent in 2020-21, 8.2 per cent in 2019-20, 9.1 per cent in 2018-19, 11.2 per cent in 2017-18 and 9.3 per cent in 2016-17 and 7.5 per cent in 2015-16).

• What is ‘Non Performing Assets’?

• Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY)-What is this scheme?

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• Under the aegis of PMMY, MUDRA has created three products namely ‘Shishu’, ‘Kishore’ and ‘Tarun’-What these three terms signify?

• What have the Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY) Scheme’s accomplishments been?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍In last 5 years, Rs 10 lakh crore in write-offs help banks halve NPAs

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China Covid protests spread, Xi faces calls to step down

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Protests against China’s heavy Covid-19 curbs spread to more cities, including the financial hub Shanghai on Sunday, nearly three years into the pandemic, with a fresh wave of anger sparked by a deadly fire in the country’s far west.

• Why are protests taking place in China?

• What is China’s zero-Covid policy?

• Why China is still adhering to its zero-Covid policy even while much of the world tries to coexist with the coronavirus?

• With this “zero-COVID” policy, have China’s COVID cases slowed down?

• How China defends its zero-Covid policy?

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• Why is the current large-scale public protest in China unusual?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Huge COVID protests erupt in China’s Xinjiang after deadly fire

THE SECOND PAGE

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Airing of ‘national interest’ content for TV may come into effect on Jan 1

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: 

• General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

• General Studies IV: Ethics and Human Interface

Key Points to Ponder:

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• What’s the ongoing story- Come January 1, 2023, it may become binding for Indian television channels to air “national interest” content for 30 minutes every day. Earlier this month, the Union Cabinet approved the ‘Guidelines for Uplinking and Downlinking of Television Channels in India, 2022’, under which it became obligatory for channels to telecast content in national and public interest.

Quick Recap-The Union Cabinet has approved the ‘Guidelines for Uplinking and Downlinking of Television Channels in India, 2022’, under which it has become obligatory for channels to telecast content in national and public interest. While the guidelines are effective from November 9, officials of the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting said channels will be given time to conceptualise and create such content.

• What “Guidelines for Uplinking and Downlinking of Television Channels in India, 2022” says about public service and national interest?

• Guidelines for Uplinking and Downlinking of Television Channels in India, 2022”-Know the key highlights

• But, why ‘Guidelines for Uplinking and Downlinking of Television Channels in India, 2022’?

• In which sectors can the I&B Ministry regulate content?

• What does national interest mean?

• Who decides national interest?

• But some scholars say that national interests are a key concept in international relations. So, in the state of affairs of the nation, how is “national interest” defined?

• What is the requirement for public service broadcasting?

• What is the rationale behind this?

• What is the definition of national interest for this purpose?

• What kind of powers does it have?

• What kind of content is not allowed?

• Do other agencies play a role?

• Why the Supreme Court of India came down heavily on TV news channels?

• “Hate drives TRPs, drives profit”-decode the quote

• What is the stand taken by the Government of India?

• Why Media is called as the Fourth Pillar of Democracy?

• What are the responsibilities of Journalists or Media towards the Society?

• What are the Issues Associated with Media and Journalism in India?

• What do you understand by ‘Yellow journalism’?

• How Media Is Regulated in India?

• What are the Loopholes in Media Regulation in India?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Content in national interest: What new TV broadcast guidelines say

President of Egypt to be chief guest on Republic Day, says MEA

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Egypt President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi will be the chief guest at the Republic Day celebrations in January, the Ministry of External Affairs said on Sunday. “This is the first time that the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt will be the Chief Guest at our Republic Day,” the MEA said in a statement.

• Who is Abdel Fattah al-Sisi?

• Why is being the Chief Guest at India’s Republic Day such a great honour?

• Which country has been guest of honor in our Republic Day for the maximum number of times?

• How is the Chief Guest chosen?

• What happens after the MEA has zeroed in on its options?

• Can things go wrong during the visit?

• How many times there was no chief guest in Republic Day?

• Has Pakistan been the principal guest at India’s Republic Day parade?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍How are India’s Republic Day chief guests chosen?

EXPRESS NETWORK

India’s first Buddhist varsity to come up in South Tripura

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: History of India

Mains Examination: General Studies I: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Shakya Gasan, chief monk of the World Buddhist Pope Association of South Korea, will lay the foundation stone for the International Buddhist University at Manu Bankul in Sabroom of South Tripura district, 90 km from here on November 29, the International Buddhist Confederation Secretary General Dhammapiya said.

• Why the proposed Dhamma Dipa International Buddhist University (DDIBU) will be first of its kind?

• The rising role of Buddhism in India’s Bilateral Relations and in soft power strategy-Know in Detail

• Lumbini and Kushinagar-What is the importance of this place in Buddhism?

• Rise of Buddhism in India and Gautam Buddha or Siddharth-Know in detail

• Know in detail about Doctrines of Buddhism, the Four noble truths, The Five Precepts and Eight-fold Path

• What are the special features of Buddhism and why it spread rapidly and widely?

• When, where and under which King’s Patronage the first, Second, Third and fourth Buddhist Council held?

• Know about the two main schools of Buddhism-Mahayana and Hinayana

• Rajgriha, Vaishali Patliputra, Kundalvana-Know the Importance of these place in Buddhism

Know the important Buddhist Mudras-Dhyani Mudra, (gesture of meditation), Vitarka Mudra, (teaching gesture), Dharmachakra Mudra, (gesture of turning the wheel of the teaching), Bhumisparsha Mudra, (gesture of touching the earth), Abhaya Mudra, (gesture of fearlessness and granting protection), Varada Mudra, (gesture of granting wishes), Uttarabodhi Mudra, (gesture of supreme enlightenment), Anjali Mudra, (gesture of greeting and veneration) and Vijrapradama Mudra, (gesture of unshakable confidence)

Map work-Mark Important Buddhist Sites in India

• Account for the decline of Buddhism in India

• In his Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Ancient India, Ambedkar wrote that ancient Indian history was nothing but “a history of a mortal conflict between Buddhism and Brahmanism”-Discuss

• “Buddhism was a revolution in ancient India, ushering in an era of equality, compassion, non-violence and rationality”-Elaborate further

• “Ambedkar has been used as political currency by parties of all hues, who carefully select his views as per convenience.”-Do you agree with the same?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍The rising role of Buddhism in India’s soft power strategy

Previous Year Prelims Questions Based on Buddhism theme:

📍 Which one of the following statements is correct? (Prelims 2021 GS question Paper)
(a) Ajanta Caves lie in the gorge of the Waghora river.
(b) Sanchi Stupa lies in the gorge of the Chambal river.
(c) Pandu – lena cave shrines lie in the gorge of the Narmada river.
(d) Amaravati Stupa lies in the gorge of the Godavari river.

📍Lord Buddha’s image is sometimes shown with the hand gesture called ‘Bhumisparsha Mudra’. It symbolizes (Prelims 2012 GS question Paper)
(a) Buddha’s calling of the Earth to watch over Mara and to prevent Mara from disturbing his meditation
(b) Buddha’s calling of the Earth to witness his purity and chastity despite the temptations of Mara
(c) Buddha’s reminder to his followers that they all arise from the Earth and finally dissolve into the Earth, and thus this life is transitory
(d) Both the statements (a) and (b) are correct in this context

📍Which of the following kingdoms were associated with the life of the Buddha?
1. Avanti
2. Gandhara
3. Kosala
4. Magadha
Select the correct answer using the code given below: (Please refer Prelims 2015 GS question Paper for complete question)

Previous year UPSC Mains Question Covering Buddhism Theme:
📍Early Buddhist Stupa-art, while depicting folk motifs and narratives successfully expounds Buddhist ideals. Elucidate (2016)

THE EDITORIAL PAGE

Air of a leader

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies III: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Ashok Gulati and Purvi Thangaraj writes: Learning from other G20 nations on how to improve AQI in Indian cities and saving millions of lives from choking with every breath need to be put on as high a priority as financial stability and growth in this interconnected world.

• Why does the authors of this article feels that the timing is perfect for India to take over the G20 presidency?

• “This is India’s moment to showcase its economic strategy, along with the culture and motto of “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” — One Earth, One Family, One Future. The government’s motto of LiFE (Lifestyle for Environment) could add further to its shine”-Discuss in the context of G20 Presidency

• There is one blot that India needs to erase as soon as possible-What is that blot? (Hint: Given in the Article itself!)

• Air pollution in Delhi and India’s G20 Presidency-how authors have established the link between the two?

Do You Know-According to Climate Watch, the biggest GHG emitters in 2019 were China (12.06 billion tonnes of CO2e), the United States (5.77 Bt CO2e), and India (3.36 Bt CO2e). However, in terms of GHG emissions on a per capita basis in 2021, Australia (23.6 tCO2e) tops, followed by Saudi Arabia (20.4 tCO2e), and Canada (20.3 tCO2e).

• What is it that the Union Government and Delhi Government can do to make Delhi liveable?

• What factors contribute to air pollution and are the primary causes of Delhi’s low AQI?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:    

📍As G20 presidency passes to India, it can bring renewed focus to sustainability deadlines

THE IDEAS PAGE

Offender vs offence

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary-Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

• What’s the ongoing story- Aman Hingorani writes: Should the offender have sufficient maturity, he/she must be prosecuted before the criminal court, tried and, if found guilty, punished

• The Supreme Court (SC) made an observation in its judgment of November 16 in the infamous Kathua rape-murder case: “… the rising rate of juvenile delinquency in India is a matter of concern and requires immediate attention-What is juvenile delinquency?

• What are the causes of juvenile delinquency?

• Juvenile delinquency shows certain general types of behaviours-what are those?

• “There is a school of thought, existing in our country that firmly believes that howsoever heinous the crime may be, be it single rape, gangrape, drug peddling or murder but if the accused is a juvenile, he should be dealt with keeping in mind only one thing i.e., the goal of reformation”-Discuss

• What is the concept of reformation of criminal?

• What is child in conflict with the law in India?

• What is Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015?

• What is the legal definition of a juvenile?

• What does the law say on trying a juvenile as an adult?

• What happens when a juvenile is ordered to be treated as an adult?

• What was the case before the Supreme Court?

• “Objective of justice should be reformative and not retributive”-Comment

• What is Criminal Justice System in India?

• Which committee is related to reforms in Criminal Justice System of India (CJSI)?

• Know Malimath Committee’s Report in detail

• Retributive Justice and Restorative Justice-compare and contrast

• What is Retributive Justice?

• “Every saint has a past and every sinner a future”-Decode the quote

• What was the Justice Verma Committee’s recommendation on juvenile delinquency?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Explained: What changes in JJ Act for juvenile offenders and District Magistrates?

EXPLAINED

Bihar’s Har Ghar Gangajal scheme for Rajgir, Gaya regions

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar will launch the Har Ghar Gangajal project in Rajgir and Gaya over Sunday and Monday, a unique and ambitious initiative to provide Ganga water on tap in parched areas of the state that do not lie along the course of the river. The scheme will harvest the excess water in the Ganga during the monsoon flooding season, to be treated, stored, and piped to Rajgir, Gaya, and Bodhgaya, regions that have for long depended on tankers of drinking water from adjoining districts to see them through the hot, dry season.

• Converting flood water into drinking water-Know the entire procedure

• Know the objectives and components of Har Ghar Gangajal scheme

• Why Har Ghar Gangajal scheme?

• Har Ghar Gangajal scheme-Know the merits and demerits

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍‘Worked for all religions’: Nitish launches Har Ghar Gangajal scheme

DBT and tenancy

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Most economists advocate the conversion of all agricultural subsidies — whether on inputs (supplying fertiliser, power, water at below cost) or outputs (procuring crops at above market prices) — into direct income support to farmers. Such support, in the form of direct benefit transfers (DBT) on a per-acre or per-farmer basis, is seen as transparent and simple to administer. Moreover, it is crop-neutral (only rice, wheat and sugarcane farmers effectively get minimum support prices now) and does not cause distortions in input/output markets.

• What are the present agri-DBT schemes in India?

• Before that, what is direct benefit transfer scheme?

• Who are tenant farmers?

• The present agri-DBT schemes and the exclusion of tenant farmers-analyse

• How to ensure inclusion of tenant farmers in DBT Schemes?

• The International Monetary Fund (IMF) recently lauded India’s Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) Scheme as a “logistical marvel”-Why?

• Direct benefit transfer scheme is one of poverty alleviation scheme-agree or disagree?

• By the way, how Direct Benefit Transfer works?

• How Direct Benefit Transfer is different from public distribution system?

• Know the merits and demerits of Direct Benefit Transfer?

• “In 2014, the Government of India embarked on an ambitious and well-structured financial inclusion programme with the aim of including all households within the fold of the formal financial network”-Discuss

• The Aadhaar-enabled Payment System and Unified Payment Interface further expanded interoperability and private-sector participation. But there are certain problems. Can list out the problems and suggest some measures?

• Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana and direct benefit transfer scheme-Connect the dots

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍India’s Direct Benefit Transfer get global laurels; IMF calls it ‘logistical marvel’, reveals striking factor

📍The making of sabka vikas

ECONOMY

Safe flying: New SOP soon on 5G airwave infra around airports

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance

Main Examination: General Studies III: Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth and Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-The aviation and telecom departments will shortly roll out a plan to ensure safe flight operations around airports with 5G airwave infrastructure. The plan includes telecom companies setting up infrastructure powering 5G networks in the country away from the flight path around airports, carrying low power signals in such areas and a plan to upgrade the altimeter of all aircraft operating in the country by August 2023, top sources told The Indian Express.

• What is the Indian Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) concern with 5G services?

• What were concerns around 5G interference with flight operations?

• What is the DoT expected to recommend?

• Has this been an issue globally?

• Have other industries raised concerns about 5G interference?

• Fifth generation wireless technology (5G)-what do you understand by this?

• Difference between 4G and 5G

• 5G Technology – Key Features

• Spectrum Auction in India-How they are done?

• 5G Spectrum Allocation-who Decides? (Nodal Ministry/Department)

• Telecom Regulatory Authority of India -Role and Mandate

• What are the recommendations made by TRAI with respect to 5G spectrum?

• What concerns has industry raised on TRAI’s 5G spectrum price recommendation?

• What are the other concerns raised by industry bodies over TRAI recommendations?

• Long-term evolution (LTE) mobile broadband networks

• What are Electromagnetic Spectrum and Radio Spectrum? Any correlations between these two terms?

• International Telecommunication Union (ITU)-About, Role and Member Countries

• Department of Telecommunications and Digital Communications Commission- About, Vision, Mission, Functions

• C-Band and 5G communications-what are the apprehensions and challenges associated with 5G Communication

• What is the procedure of Spectrum allocation in India?

• What is Adjusted gross revenue (AGR)?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍What are the concerns around 5G interference with flight operations and what is DoT’s SOP?

 

 

For any queries and feedback, contact priya.shukla@indianexpress.com
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First published on: 28-11-2022 at 19:51 IST
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