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UPSC Key-November 21, 2022 to November 25, 2022: Why you should read ‘Assam and Meghalaya Border’ or ‘Loss and Damage and COP27’ or ‘Write-Off’ or ‘Lachit Barphukan’ and Many More for UPSC CSE

Exclusive for Subscribers from Monday to Friday: The Indian Express UPSC Key November 21, 2022 to November 25, 2022 will help you prepare for the Civil Services and other competitive examinations with cues on how to read and understand content from the most authoritative news source in India.

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Important topics and their relevance in UPSC CSE exam for November 21, 2022 to November 25, 2022. If you missed the November 18, 2022 UPSC key from the Indian Express, read it here

FRONT PAGE

SC asks Govt: Goel EC file moved superfast, any tearing urgency?

Syllabus:

Subscriber Only Stories

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Retired Punjab cadre IAS officer Arun Goel on Monday assumed the office of Election Commissioner (EC), two days after President Droupadi Murmu appointed him to the post. Noting that the file relating to the appointment of former IAS officer Arun Goel as Election Commissioner had moved “in the shortest possible time, superfast… not travelled even 24 hours”, the Supreme Court asked the Centre Thursday if there was “any haste or tearing urgency”.

• Election Commission of India and Article 324 of the Constitution-Know in detail

• The Election Commission shall consist of how many members?

• Chief election commissioner and election commissioners-Compare and Contrast

• The appointment of the chief election commissioner and other election commissioners shall be made by whom?

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• What happens in case of difference of opinion amongst the Chief election commissioner and other election commissioners?

• How Article 324 of the Constitution ensures the independent and impartial functioning to Election commission of India?

• So now, tell me what is the exact issue with the appointment of former IAS officer Arun Goel as Election Commissioner?

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• How the Union Law Minister had shortlisted the names of four civil servants for recommendation to the Prime Minister for appointment to the vacant EC post?

• ‘Collegium type system’ in the appointment of Election Commissioners-Critically analyse

• Do you think that the Supreme Court is going in the right direction by questioning the procedure of appointment?

• Is Supreme Court of India is going too far with respect to the appointment of Election Commissioners?

• “The idea of including the Chief Justice of India in the appointment committee to ensure “neutrality” in the appointment of members of Election Commission”-Do you think this move will seriously ensure neutrality?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

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📍SC to Govt: Show us EC appointment file, if no hanky panky, don’t fear

📍Fixing Election Commission

📍Need CEC who can’t be bulldozed, Seshan happens once in a while: SC

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Cops chasing timber smugglers, say govts; villagers have a different story

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

Key Points to Ponder:

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What’s the ongoing story- Six persons, including an Assam Forest Guard, were killed and several others injured in a clash between Assam Police and a mob early on Tuesday over an alleged timber-smuggling attempt near a village in Meghalaya, officials said.

• What exactly happened?

• What is the border dispute between Assam and Meghalaya?

For Your Information-When Meghalaya was separated from Assam in 1972, there were disputes in 12 bordering locations because the new state had challenged the Assam Reorganisation Act, 1971.

• What are the names of the 12 bordering locations?

Do You Know-Six of the 12 such areas between Assam and Meghalaya 884.9 km border were settled in March 2022, and the following round of negotiations was scheduled to begin soon. But then, what is the major point of contention between the two states?

• What else can be done to resolve the dispute between the two states?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍On Assam-Meghalaya border dispute, shadow of recent killings

📍Assam Police open fire near Meghalaya village; 6 killed

📍What is the Assam-Meghalaya border dispute, how the recent killing of six people impacts it

Landmark deal at climate talks on fund for damage

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story– As the UN climate summit in Egypt on Sunday created history by deciding to establish a fund to address loss and damage, experts in India welcomed it is a testament to the tenacity of climate vulnerable countries and a warning shot to polluters that they can no longer go scot-free with their climate destruction.

• But on most other parameters, the Sharm el-Sheikh meeting the 27th session of the Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, or COP27 proved to be an underachiever-Why?

• Going into the conference, it was expected that COP27 would respond to the growing urgency for greater emission cuts-Did COP27 met this expectation?

• What was the main agenda in COP27?

• What is climate change ‘Loss and Damage’?

• What is the extent of loss and damage?

• “The demand for loss and damage finance is quite old, but it has faced strong resistance from the rich and developed countries”-Why?

• How does the Paris Agreement address the loss and damage associated with climate change?

• What is the apprehension over the setting up of a new facility for loss and damage finance?

• What is the meaning of climate finance?

• What is the financial mechanism? What are the other funds?

• What is the Standing Committee on Finance? What is the long-term finance process?

• Green finance and climate finance-Compare

• What do you understand by “climate disasters” and “climate negotiations”?

• Why “climate disasters” and “climate negotiations” are much talked in the COP27?

• What are the major climate change agreements?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍COP27: One hit, many misses

📍Too little, too late

📍The world’s costliest climate change disasters

In last 5 years, Rs 10 lakh crore in write-offs help banks halve NPAs

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- After writing off a huge amount of loans worth over Rs 10 lakh crore in the last five years, banks have been able to recover only 13 per cent of it so far. The mega write-off exercise has enabled banks to reduce their non-performing assets (NPAs), or defaulted loans, by Rs 10,09,510 crore ($123.86 billion) in the last five years, according to data furnished by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in its reply to the Right to Information (RTI) request filed by The Indian Express.

• What is a Write-Off?

• What is the difference between write-off and loan waiver?

• Why do banks write off loans?

• What is the amount written off by private banks?

• Who is at the forefront of write-offs?

• How much did PSU banks write off?

• What Is a Non Performing Asset (NPA)?

• How Non Performing Assets (NPA) Work

• Non Performing Assets (NPA) and write off loans-connect the dots

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍What is a loan write-off and why do banks do it?

📍Write-Offs: Understanding Different Types To Save on Taxes

EXPRESS NETWORK

Bihar to bring Ganga to parched towns — by tapping its flood water

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-Households in Bihar’s parched tourist sites of Rajgir, Gaya and Bodhgaya, long dependent on tankers, will soon get piped drinking water, with the state government tapping into an unlikely source — the Ganga’s flood water. This is the first phase of the state’s ambitious “Har Ghar Gangajal” project, which will be launched by Chief Minister Nitish Kumar on November 27 (in Rajgir) and November 28 (in Gaya and Bodhgaya).

• Converting flood water into drinking water-Know the entire procedure

• Know the objectives and components of Har Ghar Gangajal scheme

• Why Har Ghar Gangajal scheme?

• Har Ghar Gangajal scheme-Know the merits and demerits

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Bihar’s unique Har Ghar Gangajal scheme for parched Buddhist heartland of Gaya and Rajgir

Mizoram nod for shelter, food to Kuki-Chin-Mizo refugees from Bangladesh

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- At least 274 Bangladeshi tribal nationals entered Lawngtlai district in Mizoram this week, trying to flee fighting between Bangladeshi security forces and the Kuki-Chin National Army (KNA), an armed insurgent group that is active in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT).

• What is Mizoram’s refugee problem?

• “While Centre’s approach is security-centric, Mizoram government has a magnanimous, people-centred policy towards Chin refugees from Myanmar”-discuss

• Who are the Chin refugees?

• Where did the Chin people come from?

• What exactly is a refugee, an asylum-Seeker and a migrant?

• Know about United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

• What is Global Refugee Forum (GRF)?

• What is India’s Refugee Policy?

• 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol and India-Know in detail

• What do you understand by expression ‘right of non-refoulement’?

• “One of the spin-offs of the political turmoil in Myanmar has been an unprecedented schism between the Indian government and the Mizoram state government”-How far you agree with this statement?

• What is Government of India stance on this situation?

• “Mizos and Chins and the unique social-political realities between the two people at the India-Myanmar international border”-Decode the statement

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍A refuge in Mizoram

📍Explained: The ‘Blood Comrades’ of Myanmar, their violence targeting military junta’s opponents

Gyanvapi: ASI seeks time, HC to hear Nov 30

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance and History of India

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- With the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) seeking more time to file its response, the Allahabad High Court on Monday fixed November 30 for hearing the revision petition against a Varanasi district court order rejecting a plea for carbon-dating the “Shivling” said to have been found in the Gyanvapi mosque complex.

• What is Carbon Dating?

• How Carbon Dating works?

• What is the half-life concept in Carbon Dating?

• Any other alternative dating techniques to carbon dating?

• Vishwanath temple-Gyanvapi mosque controversy- What is the issue thus far?

• What are the historical claims made by petitioner with respect to Gyanvapi mosque?

• What are the Historical debates associated with Kashi Vishwanath temple-Gyanvapi mosque?

• Why the Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act 1991 is in News?

• Under what circumstances was the Places of Worship Act, 1991 law enacted, and how did the government justify it?

• The Places of Worship Act, 1991-Know the Key Provisions

• What Section 3 of the Places of Worship Act, 1991 is all about?

• Section 4(1) and Section 4(2) of the Places of worship act, 1991-Know the provisions

• Ayodhya Ram Janmabhoomi Verdict and Section 5 of the Places of Worship Act, 1991-Connect the Dot

• What did the Supreme Court say about the Places of Worship Act, 1991 in its Ayodhya judgment?

• Gyanvapi Mosque-Know the Style and Architecture

• Kashi Vishwanath Temple Architecture-Know in detail

• Ahilyabai Holkar and Kashi Vishwanath Temple-Connect the dots

• Know about Kashi Vishwanath Corridor Project

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍 The Places of Worship Act

📍 Court order on Kashi Vishwanath Temple-Gyanvapi Mosque site in Varanasi: history and context

THE EDITORIAL PAGE

The Forgotten Admiral

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: History of India

Mains Examination: General Studies I: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- The Assam government is celebrating at a national level the 400th birth anniversary of Lachit Barphukan, the iconic hero of Assam, on November 23, 24 and 25 in New Delhi.

• Know about Lachit Barphukan

• History of the Ahom kingdom-Know in brief

• Who is known as the hero of Saraighat Battle?

• What was the significance of the Battle of Saraighat?

• Lachit Borphukan in Assamese culture-know his cultural significance

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍With Delhi event, Assam pushes for national recognition to 17th century general

📍The heroism of Lachit Borphukan, legendary Ahom general and proud symbol of Assamese self-identity

THE IDEAS PAGE

The sustainable development boosts

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- India’s G20 presidency, which starts from December, provides a historic opportunity to promote inclusive development across countries and people. At the recent meet at Bali, it has been recognised that war is not a solution and we should concentrate on economic and social issues. This is particularly important in the context of global challenges like low economic growth, increasing inflation, disruption of supply chains, rising concerns about food and energy security and debt problems.

• “New world order for the post-Covid period”-Deconstruct the given statement

• What are the key takeaways from the 2022 G20 Bali summit?

• The 2022 G20 Bali summit is very special for India-why?

• What is G20?

• Know the origin of G20

• How G20 Works?

• G20 or Group of Twenty-About, Purpose and Member Countries

• What is the theme of India’s G20 Presidency?

For Your Information-The G20 Presidency steers the G20 agenda for one year and hosts the Summit. The G20 consists of two parallel tracks: the Finance Track and the Sherpa Track. Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors lead the Finance Track while Sherpas lead the Sherpa Track. The Group does not have a permanent secretariat.

• India is currently part of the G-20 Troika (current, previous and incoming presidencies) comprising Indonesia, Italy and India-What is G20 ‘Troika’?

• G20 ‘Troika’ and India-Know in detail

• Procedure for taking over the G20 presidency-How it is Decided?

• G20-Relevance in today’s Changing Geopolitical Dynamics?

• Map Work-G20 member Countries

• In the context of India’s G-20 presidency, what will be India’s “evolving priorities”?

• “Greater voice for the global south” in economic cooperation and the need to “reform 21st century institutions”-Why the term ‘Global South’ is gaining currency?

• ‘G-20 deliberations have acquired a greater salience in the current global economic and political context’-Discuss

Do You Know-The G-20, or Group of 20, is an intergovernmental forum of major developed and developing economies. It comprises Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the UK, the US and nations under the European Union (EU). The G-20 is the premier forum for international economic cooperation representing around 85 per cent of the global GDP, over 75 per cent of the global trade, and about two-thirds of the world’s population.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Road to G20, Delhi 2023

EXPLAINED

Rupee, inflation, and the RBI

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- C Rangarajan weighs in on the factors that are driving the depreciation of the rupee, and why it is essential to contain domestic inflation to stop the slide.

• Why is the rupee falling against the dollar?

• Is a stronger currency necessarily bad?

• What can be done to stabilise the rupee’s exchange rate?

• The rupee depreciation also leads to importing inflation-What is importing inflation?

• What causes imported inflation?

• This time, the rupee plunged to a fresh low of 83.02 against the US dollar-can you tell why this is happening?

• Why the Dollar is higher than the Indian Rupee?

• What do you understand by the ‘rupee exchange rate’?

• Why are the rupee-dollar exchange rate and forex reserves falling?

• Some experts also attribute “outflow of foreign portfolio investment (FPI) for rupee plunging”-What FPIs’ market exit means?

• How does outflow of foreign portfolio investment impacts the markets and the rupee?

• What will be the effect on the economy?

• What do you understand by Rupee depreciation?

• Appreciation vs Depreciation of Currency-Compare and Contrast

• “The theory that RBI can intervene and protect certain levels of currency has its limitations”-What kind of Limitations?

• The RBI and the Government of India have had to work overtime to mitigate the adverse effects of oil prices and Rupee fall-what are the steps taken by them?

• How RBI has been intervening from time to time to contain the volatility in rupee?

• What should policymakers do to prevent the fall?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Strengthening dollar, weakening rupee: what the numbers show

India’s unusual abstention in CITES vote on reopening ivory trade

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Although increasingly squeezed for space and support in a crowded land, the elephant remains one of India’s most powerful cultural and religious symbols. A pioneer in banning even the domestic trade in ivory in 1986, India has always been at the forefront of global elephant conservation initiatives. That is why India’s decision not to vote against a proposal to re-open the international trade in ivory at the ongoing conference of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) surprised many.

• What is Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)?

• Why Tussle over ivory?

• What is India stand on ivory trade?

• What are India’s attempts to stop the trade of ivory?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Thanks to Namibia for cheetahs? India abstains on ivory trade vote

Developing Great Nicobar: strategic imperative, ecological concerns

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.

Main Examination: General Studies III: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story– Last month, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change gave environmental clearance for the ambitious Rs 72,000 crore development project on the strategically important Great Nicobar Island. The project is to be implemented in three phases over the next 30 years.

Map Work-Great Nicobar Island

Do You Know-The Greater Nicobar island is occupied by the Shompen and Nicobarese tribes. The project area falls near two national parks – Galathea Bay National Park and Campbell Bay National Park. The Greater Nicobar region is home to leatherback sea turtles and other important species such as Nicobar macaque, Nicobar megapode and saltwater crocodiles and rare and endemic plant species such as tree ferns and orchids. The project was given a go-ahead keeping in mind the strategic importance of the port to be developed.

• It is said that this project is of great strategic importance keeping in mind India’s presence in the Bay of Bengal, but what about environment and biodiversity?

• Environment vs Development-debate

• What do you understand by the term ‘Environmental Impact Assessment’ (EIA)?

• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environment Protection Act, 1986-How they are related with each other?

• Why Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is Important?

• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Rules Amendment, 2006-Key features

• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) notification 2020-Key Highlights

• Environmental Impact Assessment-Achievements, Issues and Challenges

• Supreme court of India on Environment Impact Assessment (ex-post facto environmental clearance)

• What is State Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAAs) in EIA?

• State expert appraisal committees, often known as SEACs, also exist at the Union and state levels to advise the government on the environmental clearance of development projects. How frequently does the government heed their
recommendations?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍UPSC Ethics Simplified: What is Environmental Ethics?

ECONOMY

Bringing back old pension system is one of the biggest revdis: Montek

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Terming the Old Pension Scheme as one of the “biggest revdis”, former Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Montek Singh Ahluwalia said though there are talks about controlling fiscal deficit, there is no suggestion of getting rid of certain expenditure.

• The demand for restoration of the Old Pension Scheme (OPS) has emerged as a major poll plank both in Gujarat and in Himachal Pradesh-why?

• What is the Old Pension Scheme (OPS)?

• Why the old pension scheme was discontinued?

• What is the New Pension Scheme (NPS)?

• What is the difference between the old and new pension schemes?

• Why have some employees criticised the New Pension Scheme?

• What is the argument over the financial burden of OPS?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍One-time poll sop OK but revival of pension scheme sinful: Panagariya

For any queries and feedback, contact priya.shukla@indianexpress.com
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First published on: 27-11-2022 at 21:33 IST
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