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UPSC Key- January 24, 2023: Know about Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Trans fat and Abortion laws in India

Exclusive for Subscribers from Monday to Friday: The Indian Express UPSC Key January 24, 2023 will provide you with tips on how to read and comprehend articles from the most reputable news source in India, the Indian Express, so that you may better prepare for the Civil Services and other competitive examinations.

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Important topics and their relevance in UPSC CSE exam for January 24, 2023. If you missed the January 23, 2023 UPSC key from the Indian Express, read it here

FRONT PAGE

Want to step down, have told PM: Maharashtra Governor Koshyari

Syllabus:

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Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story– Maharashtra Governor Bhagat Singh Koshyari, who has faced Opposition criticism and demands for his resignation over various issues — most recently, his remarks on Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, said on Monday that he has conveyed his desire to step down to Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

• The Governor can resign at any time by addressing a resignation letter to whom?

• What is the most recent controversy regarding the governor’s role?

• What are the Constitutional Roles of a Governor?

• What Articles 153-161 of the Constitution says?

• The Governor is appointed by whom?

• Office of Governor-know the historical background

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• Why has the Governor’s role and powers recently become a matter of contention?

• Various attempts were made to understand the role of the governor to strengthening center-state relations-Can you name those committees and their recommendations?

• Administrative Reforms Commission of 1968, the Rajamanar Committee of 1969, the Sarkaria commission of 1988 and Punchhi Commission-What were their recommendations in the context of role of Governor?

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• The Sarkaria Commission, set up in 1983 to look into Centre-state relations, proposed certain points for the selection of Governors-Know them in detail

• What Punchhi Committee, constituted in 2007 on Centre-state relations said on selection the Governor?

• The Punchhi Committee recommended deleting the “Doctrine of Pleasure” from the Constitution-What is “Doctrine of Pleasure”?

• What Supreme Court of India said about the Governor’s role?

• How things changed after the S.R. Bommai case ,1994?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Explained: Governor’s powers, friction with states, and why this happens often

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📍What does the law say on how a Governor can be sacked?

📍A reality check for Raj Bhavans: Governor has no discretionary powers

Previous Year Prelims Questions Based on same theme:

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📍Which one of the following suggested that the Governor should be an eminent person from outside the State and should be a detached figure without intense political links or should not have taken part in politics in the recent past? (Please refer Prelims 2019 GS question Paper for complete question)
📍Which of the following are the discretionary powers given to the Governor of a State? (Please refer Prelims 2014 GS question Paper for complete question)
1. Sending a report to the President of India for imposing the President’s rule
2. Appointing the Ministers
3. Reserving certain bills passed by the State Legislature for consideration of the President of India
4. Making the rules to conduct the business of the State Government

Andaman islands named after Param Vir Chakra awardees

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: 

• General Studies I: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present significant events, personalities, issues.

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• General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday named 21 islands in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands after Param Vir Chakra awardees. At an online event on the occasion of Subhas Chandra Bose’s birth anniversary, Modi also unveiled the model of a proposed memorial dedicated to Bose, to be set up in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Map Work-Andaman and Nicobar, Barren Island, Ross Island, Eastern most and southern most point

• How many islands are there in Andaman and Nicobar?

• Know the names of Eastern most and southern most point in the Andaman and Nicobar island?

• Name the water body that separates Andaman Islands from the Nicobar Islands

• What is special about Barren Island?

• What is special about Ross Island?

• For Your Information-The islands have been named after Major Somnath Sharma, Subedar and Hony Captain (then Lance Naik) Karam Singh, 2nd Lt Rama Raghoba Rane, Nayak Jadunath Singh, Company Havildar Major Piru Singh, Capt G S Salaria, Lt Col (then Major) Dhan Singh Thapa, Subedar Joginder Singh, Major Shaitan Singh, CQMH Abdul Hamid, Lt Col Ardeshir Burzorji Tarapore, Lance Naik Albert Ekka, Major Hoshiar Singh, 2nd Lt Arun Khetrapal, Flying Officer Nirmaljit Singh Sekhon, Major Ramaswamy Parameswaran, Naib Subedar Bana Singh, Captain Vikram Batra, Lt Manoj Kumar Pandey, Subedar Major (then Rifleman) Sanjay Kumar, and Subedar Major (Honorary Captain) Yogendra Singh Yadav.

• Know in detail about ‘Parakram Diwas’

• Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and his role in the independence movement against British rule of India.

• Forward Bloc and Indian National Army-Know in detail

• Subhas Chandra Bose and Indian National Congress-Know in detail

• Political views of Subhas Chandra Bose-Know in detail

• Subhas Chandra Bose and in his Azad Hind Radio message from Berlin-Significance

• Subhas Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi-ideological differences

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Respect despite the discord: Subhas Chandra Bose’s relationship with Nehru, Gandhi and the Congress

📍5 things about life and times of Subhas Chandra Bose

Previous Year Prelims Questions Based on same theme:

📍Which one of the following pairs of islands is separated from each other by the ‘Ten Degree Channel’? (Please refer Prelims 2014 GS question Paper for complete question)
(a) Andaman and Nicobar
(b) Nicobar and Sumatra
(c) Maldives and Lakshadweep
(d) Sumatra and Java

THE SECOND PAGE

5-billion people globally still vulnerable to health hazards: WHO report

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Five billion people globally remain unprotected from harmful trans fat, a new status report from the World Health Organisation (WHO) has found, increasing their risk of heart disease and death. Since WHO first called for the global elimination of industrially produced trans-fat in 2018 with an elimination target set for 2023 population coverage of best-practice policies has increased almost six-fold. Forty three countries have now implemented best-practice policies for tackling trans-fat in food, with 2.8 billion people protected globally. India is among the top implementers in the middle-income countries category, according to the release.

• What is Trans fat?

• Why it is called trans fat?

• Why trans-fat is harmful?

• What is the cap imposed on trans fatty acids by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)?

• For Your Information-Industrially produced trans-fat (also called industrially produced trans-fatty acids) is commonly found in packaged foods, baked goods, cooking oils and spreads. Trans fat intake is responsible for up to 500 000 premature deaths from coronary heart disease each year around the world.

• What are the best-practice policies taken for the removal of trans fatty acids both globally and in India?

• Do You Know-Best-practices in trans-fat elimination policies follow specific criteria established by WHO and limit industrially produced trans-fat in all settings. There are two best-practice policy alternatives: 1) mandatory national limit of 2 grams of industrially produced trans-fat per 100 grams of total fat in all foods; and 2) mandatory national ban on the production or use of partially hydrogenated oils (a major source of trans fat) as an ingredient in all foods.

• Way Ahead-In 2023, WHO recommends that countries focus on these four areas: adopting best-practice policy, monitoring and surveillance, healthy oil replacements and advocacy. WHO guidance has been developed to help countries make rapid advances in these areas. WHO also encourages food manufacturers to eliminate industrially produced trans-fat from their products, aligning to the commitment made by the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA). Major suppliers of oils and fats are asked to remove industrially produced trans-fat from the products sold to food manufacturers globally. The report, called “Countdown to 2023 – WHO report on global trans fat elimination 2022”, is an annual status report published by WHO in collaboration with Resolve to Save Lives, to track progress towards the goal of trans fat elimination in 2023.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍How do trans-fats damage your heart vessels? Why is WHO worried about 5 billion people exposed to them?

📍Trans-fats must go from Indian foods by 2022: Experts

EXPRESS NETWORK

Woman’s right to choose to continue pregnancy with foetal abnormalities or not; Bombay HC allows woman to terminate 33-week pregnancy

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary-Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- The Bombay High Court has allowed a married woman to terminate her 33-week pregnancy after the foetus was detected with severe abnormalities. The Court noted that the length of the pregnancy did not matter, as the petitioner had taken an “informed decision” and only she had a “right to choose whether to continue with the pregnancy or not and not the medical board.”

• What exactly the Bombay HC said in this case?

• The constitutional right of women to make reproductive choices in India-Know Supreme court of India’s verdict

• What is India’s law on abortion?

• Why does the legislation have this gap?

• The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 and The new Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Act 2021-Compare and Contrast

• Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Act 2021-Know the key provisions

• What is ‘Gestation’?

• For Your Information-Rule 3B of Rules annexed to the MTP Act, which was amended in 2021, specify seven categories of women who are eligible for termination between 20-24 weeks. These are: survivors of sexual assault or rape or incest; minors; those who have a change of marital status during the ongoing pregnancy (widowhood and divorce); women with physical disabilities; mentally ill women; women carrying malformed foetus that has substantial risk of being incompatible with life; and women with pregnancy in humanitarian settings or disaster or emergency situations as may be declared by the government.

• Significance and importance of Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Act 2021?

• Issues and Challenges associated with Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Act 2021?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍UPSC ethics simplified: abortion rights vs ethics

📍What is India’s law on abortion, and why has a pregnant unmarried petitioner gone to Supreme Court in appeal?

INS Vagir inducted into Navy: Stealth-class submarine will serve as potent deterrent for adversaries, says chief

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story– INS Vagir, the fifth stealth Scorpene-class Submarine, was commissioned into the Navy on Monday, making it the third submarine inducted into the Navy in 24 months and the 17th one to be in service with the Navy. The commissioning ceremony took place at the Naval Dockyard in Mumbai. Navy Chief Adm R Hari Kumar was chief guest for the ceremony.

• INS Vagir-know its features

• What are the 6 submarines of Project 75?

• How many Scorpene class submarines are there?

• How are submarines classified?

• What is the history of India’s submarine acquisition?

• Why have there been delays in modernisation?

• What are the current projects underway?

• What is China’s capability, and why is that a worry for India?

• Why are nuclear submarines so coveted?

• How many does India have?

• What do you understand by Stealth technology?

• What is ‘Project-75’?

• Project -75 and Project-75I-difference between the two?

• Project-75I (India)-Key Features

• Project -75 or Project-75I (India)-Significance

• Defence Acquisition Council-About, Role and Functions

• Other Submarines under Project P75-Know in detail

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Explained: India’s submarine strength

📍For a stronger navy, India needs to fast-track the submarine project

THE IDEAS PAGE

Jobs data and its discontents

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Main Examination: General Studies III: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Surjit S Bhalla and Tirthatanmoy Das Writes: Non-availability of official data has allowed unofficial estimates about employment growth in India to flourish.

• “It is said that data is the new oil”-Analyse

• While employment is a very important policy concern, data in India is scarce-Why?

• ‘Profound changes in fertility, workforce, income generation and labour force participation of women are happening. But we don’t know because government data is being released on a delayed and irregular basis’-How this delay impacts
in policy making?

• For Your Information-Non-availability of official data has allowed unofficial estimates about employment growth in India to flourish. One such unofficial estimate is in the form of a jobs bulletin jointly produced by Ashoka University’s Centre for Economic Data (CEDA) and CMIE. In complete contrast to the recovery in GDP between 2019 and 2022, the CEDA-CMIE study (The Long Road to Recovery, Preeta Joseph and Raashika Moudgill) claimed that 14 million jobs (3.4 per cent of the workforce) were lost between month of January 2020 and month of October 2022.

• ‘The non-timely release of the PLFS data emphasises the need for the government to introspect why its own data is kept unprocessed and/or delayed’-How far you agree?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Delay in release of official statistics has dire consequences for addressing job crisis

EXPLAINED

Govt’s emergency power to block content, used for the BBC film

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Last week, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (MIB) directed YouTube and Twitter to take down links sharing the BBC documentary ‘India: The Modi Question.’ The order was passed under the emergency provisions of the Information Technology Rules, 2021, for allegedly casting “aspersions on the authority and credibility of the Supreme Court of India, sowing divisions among various communities, and making unsubstantiated allegations regarding actions of foreign governments in India”.

• What are the emergency provisions?

• For Your Information-Under the Information Technology Rules, 2021 (IT Rules, 2021), the MIB has powers to issue content takedown notices to social media intermediaries like YouTube, Twitter and Facebook in emergency situations “for which no delay is acceptable”.

• How often have they been used?

• What can users whose content has been impacted do?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Documentary on 2002 Gujarat riots: Govt orders YouTube, Twitter to block BBC film on Modi, Opposition says censorship

IMMUNE IMPRINTING

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Since last September, countries like the UK and the US have rolled out variant-specific or bivalent boosters, in the hope that they would provide better protection against the coronavirus infection in comparison to the original vaccine. However, a slew of recent studies has shown that a phenomenon in our bodies, called immune imprinting, might be making these new boosters far less effective than expected.

• What is immune imprinting?

• What are the findings of the recent study?

• How to circumvent immune imprinting?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍HYBRID IMMUNITY MOST EFFECTIVE AGAINST SEVERE COVID: STUDY

Can a journalist be made to disclose sources? What courts have said

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: 

• General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

• General Studies IV: Ethics and Human Interface

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- While rejecting a closure report filed by the Central Bureau of Investigation, a Delhi court on January 19 said there is “no statutory exemption in India to journalists from disclosing their sources to investigating agencies”.

• What exactly did the court say?

• What is the legal protection for disclosure of journalistic sources?

• What have courts said on this issue?

• What were the recommendations by the Law Commission of India for a change in law?

• Position in other countries-Know in brief

• What is ‘freedom of press’?

• Why is freedom of the press important?

• What are the three key features of the freedom of press?

• What is the World Press Freedom Index?

• Who published World Press Freedom Index 2022?

• What is the rank of India in World Press Freedom Index in 2022?

• What World Press Freedom Index 2022 says about the Performance of India?

• For Your Information-The World Press Freedom Index 2022 described India as “one of the world’s most dangerous countries for the media” and noted that “journalists are exposed to all kinds of physical violence, including police violence, ambushes by political activists and deadly reprisals by criminal groups or corrupt local officials.”

• Why India performed poor in The World Press Freedom Index 2022-Know the reasons behind the fall in ranking of India?

• What is freedom of press in India?

• Why Media is called as the Fourth Pillar of Democracy?

• How other countries including India’s neighbours performed in the World Press Freedom Index 2022?

• What are the responsibilities of Journalists or Media towards the Society?

• What do you understand by the term “Journalism ethics”?

• What are the Ethical dilemmas faced by Journalists anywhere in the world?

• What are the Issues Associated with Media and Journalism in India?

• What do you understand by ‘Yellow journalism’?

• How Media Is Regulated in India?

• What are the Loopholes in Media Regulation in India?

• What does Reporters Without Borders or Reporters sans Frontières stand for in journalism?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Court says journalists not exempt from disclosing sources to investigating agencies

For any queries and feedback, contact priya.shukla@indianexpress.com
The UPSC KEY 
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First published on: 24-01-2023 at 19:53 IST
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