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UPSC Key- December 9, 2022: Why you should read ‘National Party’ or ‘The Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Bill, 2022’ or ‘EAGLE Act of 2022’ for UPSC CSE

Exclusive for Subscribers from Monday to Friday: The Indian Express UPSC Key December 9, 2022 will help you prepare for the Civil Services and other competitive examinations with cues on how to read and understand content from the most authoritative news source in India.

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Important topics and their relevance in UPSC CSE exam for December 9, 2022. If you missed the December 8, 2022 UPSC key from the Indian Express, read it here

FRONT PAGE

With 12.9%, AAP enters House and becomes a national party

Syllabus:

Subscriber Only Stories

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- A year after it won 28 seats in its maiden election in Delhi, the Aam Aadmi Party decided to go national, fielding candidates from 432 out of 543 Lok Sabha seats. While it managed to win four seats in Punjab, party chief Arvind Kejriwal’s national ambitions were called misplaced, especially keeping in mind that the party was formed less than two years ago. On Thursday, with voters in Gujarat giving AAP almost 13% of the vote share, and a likely five seats, Kejriwal is set to become the head of a national party, the ninth in the country.

• What is a National Party?

• How Election Commission of India defines National Party?

• What is a State Party?

• What are the basic requirement to be recognised as a state party?

• National Party and State Party-compare and contrast

• Where does the AAP fit into this scheme?

• What are the other national parties?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍AAP’s national ambition gets national party stamp

📍NATIONAL PARTY

GOVT & POLITICS

Court final arbiter of law, says SC, asks govt to limit criticism

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance

Main Examination: General Studies II: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary

Key Points to Ponder:

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• What’s the ongoing story-Undeterred by criticism of the Collegium system of appointing judges, the Supreme Court on Thursday asserted that it is the “final arbiter” of the law under the Constitutional scheme and as the law stands, the government will “have to appoint” all names reiterated by its Collegium. Without taking names, a three-judge bench presided by Justice S K Kaul also asked Attorney General R Venkataramani to advise Union ministers who are criticising the Collegium system to control themselves.

• What is the meaning of contempt of the court?

• Is contempt of court mentioned in Constitution?

• What is Article 129 of the Indian Constitution?

• Why do courts require contempt powers?

• Who is the final interpreter of Constitution of India?

• Who defends the Constitution of India?

• Who is the custodian of the Constitution of India?

• Executive Vs Judiciary for appointment of judges in higher judiciary-Know in detail

• What is Collegium System and it was criticised by the Union Law Minister?

• What does the Collegium consider while making the recommendation?

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• National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) Act 2014-Know the key highlights

• Supreme Court on NJAC Act 2014 (99th Constitutional Amendment Act)-know in detail

• First Judges Case (1982), Second Judges Case (1993) and Third Judges Case (1998)-Know in detail

• What was the Supreme court’s ruling in the Second Judges case (1993), with respect to the appointment of a judge?

• Third Judges case (1998) and Supreme Court’s ruling in case of the appointment-What was the Supreme Court’s ruling?

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• The National Judicial Appointments Commission Act of 2014 and the Collegium System-Compare and Contrast

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍A corrosive strike at court

📍No plan yet to reintroduce NJAC, Centre tells House

IN PARLIAMENT

Rajya Sabha clears Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Bill

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change

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Mains Examination: General Studies III: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-The Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Bill, 2022, which seeks to to strengthen the protection of endangered species and enhance punishment for illegal wildlife trade, was passed in the Rajya Sabha by a voice vote on Thursday. The Bill, which was cleared by the Lok Sabha on August 2 during the monsoon session, was introduced by Environment and Forest Minister Bhupender Yadav on Tuesday.

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• What is Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)?

• What is the main objective of CITES?

• The Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Bill, 2022 and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)-connect the dots

• What is the Constitutional Provisions for Wildlife in Indian Constitution?

• Why Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972?

• What are the Salient Features of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972?

• How many bodies are established under the Wildlife Protection Act 1972?

• Why amendment is required in the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Parliament passes Wildlife Bill: Questions remain on elephants, vermin

EXPLAINED

Himachal: fiscal challenge in Cong Old Pension Scheme promise

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- The trends of the Himachal Pradesh Assembly election results indicate a defeat of the ruling BJP and a win for the Congress, which has promised to restore the Old Pension Scheme (OPS) in the state. The OPS figured as a prominent election promise in the Assembly elections in the two states, triggering debates that went beyond the political arena. Two Congress-ruled states — Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh — have already decided to implement the OPS, and the party had promised to restore it in Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh if it came to power.

• What is the Old Pension Scheme (OPS)?

• Why the old pension scheme was discontinued?

• What is the New Pension Scheme (NPS)?

• What is the difference between the old and new pension schemes?

• Why have some employees criticised the New Pension Scheme?

• What is the argument over the financial burden of OPS?

• For Your Information-According to data available with the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG), the Centre’s total Committed Expenditure was Rs 9.78 lakh crore during 2019-20, which included an expenditure of Rs 1.39 lakh crore on ‘salary and wages’, Rs 1.83 lakh crore on pensions and Rs 6.55 lakh crore on ‘interest payments and servicing of debts’. The Centre’s total Committed Expenditure accounted for 37 per cent of its total revenue expenditure of Rs 26.15 lakh crore in 2019-20.

• Do You Know-The expenditure on pension is one of the key components of the government’s Committed Expenditure. The other two are the expenditure on salary and wages and interest payment and servicing of debt. If the Committed Expenditure is higher, it means that the government has lesser flexibility to determine the purpose for which revenue expenditure is to be incurred.

• What is committed expenditure?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Why the Old Pension Scheme is both bad economics and bad politics

India’s Central Asia outreach

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Main Examination: General Studies II: India and its neighbourhood- relations and Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s Interest

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- National Security Advisor (NSA) Ajit Doval hosted a meeting of his counterparts from five Central Asian countries — Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan — in New Delhi on December 6. All countries except Turkmenistan sent their NSAs; Ashgabat was represented by its ambassador in New Delhi.

• India and Central Asian region-Know the Historical background

• The Central Asia region (CA) comprises the countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan-True or false?

• Map Work-Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

• Afghanistan Crisis-Background and Current Situation

• India’s strategic Interest in Afghanistan

• Delhi Declaration on Afghanistan- Geopolitical Importance

• The Delhi declaration and its challenges

• India-Central Asia dialogue 2021

• India’s Central Asia Policy- Connect Central Asia Policy

• Importance of Central Asian Region for India

• India’s Bilateral Relation with each Countries like Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan etc.

• Ashgabat Agreement and International North South Transit Corridor (INSTC)

• Do You Know-India considers the Central Asian countries as the “heart of Asia” and they are also members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). India and the Central Asian nations have similarities in approach in countering terrorism and the threat of radicalisation, and the issues will be discussed in the meeting. Sources said connectivity, including exploring making the Chabahar port in Iran integrate with the International North-South Transport Corridor, will also be part of the deliberations.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Financing lifeblood of terrorism, countering it is a priority: Ajit Doval

THE WORLD

Biden supports Bill that eliminates per country quota for green cards

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-The White House has supported Congress to pass a legislation that seeks to eliminate the per country quota on green cards to allow US employers to focus on hiring people based on merit, not their birthplace, a bill if passed would benefit several hundreds of thousands of immigrants specially Indian-Americans.

• What is Green Card?

• How do they work?

• What is Equal Access to Green Cards for Legal Employment (EAGLE) Act of 2022?

• How Equal Access to Green Cards for Legal Employment (EAGLE) Act of 2022 will benefit Indians?

• What does the EAGLE Act say about the per-country limit?

• What about predecessors to the EAGLE Act?

Do You Know-The EAGLE Act would eliminate a per-country cap on employment-based green cards— a policy that disproportionately affects Indian immigrants. If passed, this legislation would phase out the per-country caps over the course of nine years to ensure that eligible immigrants from less populated countries are not excluded as the EAGLE Act is implemented.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Explained: What is the EAGLE Act, which seeks to remove cap on employment-based immigrant visas in US?

CELINE DION DIAGNOSED WITH RARE DISORDER

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: General Science

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Health, Education, Human Resources.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-French-Canadian singer Celine Dion has opened up about being diagnosed with Stiff-Person Syndrome (SPS), a rare neurological condition that makes the muscles spasm uncontrollably. The disorder has left her with difficulties in walking and singing due to which she will be unable to take part in planned shows in the UK and Europe next year.

• Personality in News- Celine Dion

• What is Stiff-Person Syndrome?

• What are muscle spasms?

• What are its causes?

• What are the common symptoms?

• Is Stiff-Person Syndrome curable?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Celine Dion gets treated for ‘severe and persistent muscle spasms’; know about this health condition

ECONOMY

Electoral bonds: Political parties get `676 cr from anonymous donors

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance

Main Examination: General Studies II: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Political parties garnered Rs 676.26 crore in the 23rd phase of the sale of electoral bonds (EBs) between November 11 and 15, ahead of the Assembly elections in Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh.

• What are Electoral Bonds?

• Electoral Bonds-Key Features

• Which Bank is the only bank authorised to sell Electoral Bonds?

• Electoral Bonds and associated issues

• When are the bonds available for purchase?

• Are electoral bonds taxable?

• Why were electoral bonds introduced in India?

• Why are electoral bonds being so vehemently opposed by transparency activists?

• How popular are electoral bonds as a route of donation?

• What does the Supreme Court have to say on electoral bonds?

• What is the Election Commission’s stand on electoral bonds?

• Reserve Bank of India on electoral bonds scheme?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Explained: Why the electoral bonds scheme has been challenged in Supreme Court

For any queries and feedback, contact priya.shukla@indianexpress.com
The UPSC KEY 
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First published on: 09-12-2022 at 19:54 IST
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