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UPSC Key- December 5, 2022: Why you should read ‘Iran’s morality police’ or ‘Digital-Divide’ or ‘Digital Lending’ for UPSC CSE

Exclusive for Subscribers from Monday to Friday: The Indian Express UPSC Key December 5, 2022 will help you prepare for the Civil Services and other competitive examinations with cues on how to read and understand content from the most authoritative news source in India.

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Important topics and their relevance in UPSC CSE exam for December 5, 2022. If you missed the December 2, 2022 UPSC key from the Indian Express, read it here

FRONT PAGE

Following months of protests, Iran regime scraps morality police

Syllabus:

Subscriber Only Stories

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Iran has scrapped its morality police units after more than two months of protests triggered by the death of Mahsa Amini during her detention for allegedly violating the country’s strict female dress code.

• What is Iran’s morality police and why disbanded now?

• How the Iran’s morality police or Gasht-e Ershad Works?

• For Your Information-Iran’s morality police, the ‘Gasht-e Ershad’ or Revolutionary Guards group was established in 2005 with the task of arresting people who violate the country’s Islamic dress code.

• What are the protests about?

• How the protests in Iran started?

• How have authorities reacted?

• Do You Know-The custodial death of Mahsa Amini, a young woman who was arrested by the morality police in Tehran, sparked widespread protests in Iran. According to reports, officers hit her over the head with a baton. According to the authorities, she had a heart attack. Authorities released footage of Mahsa Amini collapsing in a police station to back up their claim, but the clip, together with photographs of her in a coma, enraged ordinary Iranians.

• Iran before Islamic revolution in 1979 and after-know in detail

• What is a hijab and why is it worn?

• Why Hijab is forced to wear in Islamic Nations?

• Is hijab an obligation or a choice?

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• ‘Force or compulsion is main problem and not the hijab in Iran’-discuss

• Why disbandment of the morality police is significant?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Iran’s morality police, ‘disbanded’ amid street protests

SC panel: Uttarakhand tiger reserve road not for commercial traffic

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change

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Mains Examination: General Studies III: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Underlining that “conservation priority of the forest area far outweighs the commercial transport needs of the state government”, the Central Empowered Committee (CEC) of the Supreme Court has recommended against blacktopping a 4.7-km stretch of a key forest road in the buffer zone of Uttarakhand’s Rajaji tiger reserve.

• Map Work-Rajaji tiger reserve

• Why Supreme Court-appointed Central Empowered Committee (CEC)?

• Quick Recap-In March 2019, The Indian Express reported that the Uttarakhand government had transferred two segments of the forest road to the state’s Public Works Department without obtaining clearance from the National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) in violation of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

• What is the Constitutional Provisions for Wildlife in Indian Constitution?

• Why Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972?

• What are the Salient Features of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972?

• How many bodies are established under the Wildlife Protection Act 1972?

• National Board for Wildlife (NBWL)-Know in detail

• National Board for Wildlife-Members, functions and role

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• As a “Statutory Organization,” the National Board for Wildlife performs “advisory” functions-True or false?

• Do You Know-Under the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act 2006, tiger reserve land and forests linking tiger reserves cannot be diverted “except in public interest and with the approval of the National Board for Wild Life (NBWL) and on the advice of the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)”.

• How many tiger reserves are there in India?

• What is National Park?

• What is Wildlife Sanctuary

• What is Tiger Reserve?

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• Know the difference between National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuary & Tiger Reserve

• “Status of Tigers in India” report-Key Highlights

• What is Project Tiger?

• National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body under which Ministry?

• Who is the Chairman of National Tiger Conservation Authority?

• What is Conservation Assured Tiger Standards (CATS)?

• Know about Section 38V (1) of The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

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• Map Work-Locate top five and bottom five states, Tiger Reserves mentioned in IFSR 2021

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍For promised road, Uttarakhand wangles land from tiger reserve

THE EDITORIAL PAGE

Don’t count out Party-State

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Jabin T Jacob writes: While the Chinese party-state has, until now, been able to subdue or prevent protests using traditional means as well as new technology, protestors in the past have also been wary of embarrassing either the CCP or the central government. The latest protests are, therefore, astonishing precisely because they undermine these long-standing trends.

• Why are protests taking place in China?

• What are China’s lockdown rules?

• How many Covid cases does China have?

• What is China’s vaccination rates?

• What is China’s zero-Covid policy?

• Why is China still trying to achieve zero Covid?

• Why China is still adhering to its zero-Covid policy even while much of the world tries to coexist with the coronavirus?

• With this “zero-COVID” policy, have China’s COVID cases slowed down?

• How China defends its zero-Covid policy?

• Why is the current large-scale public protest in China unusual?

• What effect have zero Covid policies had on China’s economy?

• Do You Know-The protests against the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) zero-Covid strategy,
erupted following a fire last week that killed 10 people in a high-rise building in Urumqi, capital of China’s minority-dominated Xinjiang province. The perception was that it was callous and unthinking enforcement of anti-Covid measures that prevented rescue services from reaching the building in time.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍China Covid protests spread, Xi faces calls to step down

A QUESTION OF POLITICS

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Ruchi Gupta writes: What we are seeing in India now is a consolidation of political power in one faction, which is also rejecting much of the pre-existing consensus that underpinned governance in our country. Institutions are coming under pressure. Re-establishing consensus — and institutional independence — is a political battle which requires mobilising public opinion and organisation.

• ‘The Supreme Court’s interrogation of the executive regarding the appointments to the Election Commission has foregrounded the issue of institutional independence’-Decode the statement

• “While institutional leadership plays a pivotal role in elevating or degrading institutional integrity, the focus on selection glosses over variability in individual behaviour after occupying the seat of power”-Compare Institutional leadership vs Institutional integrity

• Election Commission of India and Article 324 of the Constitution-Know in detail

• The Election Commission shall consist of how many members?

• Chief election commissioner and election commissioners-Compare and Contrast

• The appointment of the chief election commissioner and other election commissioners shall be made by whom?

• What happens in case of difference of opinion amongst the Chief election commissioner and other election commissioners?

• How Article 324 of the Constitution ensures the independent and impartial functioning to Election commission of India?

• What is the exact issue with the appointment of former IAS officer Arun Goel as Election Commissioner?

• How the Union Law Minister had shortlisted the names of four civil servants for recommendation to the Prime Minister for appointment to the vacant EC post?

• ‘Collegium type system’ in the appointment of Election Commissioners-Critically analyse

• Do you think that the Supreme Court is going in the right direction by questioning the procedure of appointment?

• Is Supreme Court of India is going too far with respect to the appointment of Election Commissioners?

• “The idea of including the Chief Justice of India in the appointment committee to ensure “neutrality” in the appointment of members of Election Commission”-Do you think this move will seriously ensure neutrality?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Democracy interrupted

EXPRESS NETWORK

Pension bill exceeded salary & wages spending for Centre, 3 states: CAG data

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Expenditure on pension has emerged as one of the major components of the Committed Expenditure of the Centre and states in recent years. In fact, it was higher than the ‘salary and wages’ expenditure of the Centre and three states – including Gujarat – during 2019-20, according to official data.

• For Your Information-According to data available with the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG), the Centre’s total Committed Expenditure was Rs 9.78 lakh crore during 2019-20, which included an expenditure of Rs 1.39 lakh crore on ‘salary and wages’, Rs 1.83 lakh crore on pensions and Rs 6.55 lakh crore on ‘interest payments and servicing of debts’. The Centre’s total Committed Expenditure accounted for 37 per cent of its total revenue expenditure of Rs 26.15 lakh crore in 2019-20.

• Do You Know-The expenditure on pension is one of the key components of the government’s Committed Expenditure. The other two are the expenditure on salary and wages and interest payment and servicing of debt. If the Committed Expenditure is higher, it means that the government has lesser flexibility to determine the purpose for which revenue expenditure is to be incurred.

• What is committed expenditure?

• The demand for restoration of the Old Pension Scheme (OPS) has emerged as a major poll plank both in Gujarat and in Himachal Pradesh-why?

• What is the Old Pension Scheme (OPS)?

• Why the old pension scheme was discontinued?

• What is the New Pension Scheme (NPS)?

• What is the difference between the old and new pension schemes?

• Why have some employees criticised the New Pension Scheme?

• What is the argument over the financial burden of OPS?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Why the Old Pension Scheme is both bad economics and bad politics

Women constitute one-third of Internet users in India: Study

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development and Current events of national and international importance

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- Women constitute only one third of internet users in India, said a study conducted by NGO Oxfam India. According to ‘India Inequality Report 2022: Digital Divide’ released by the NGO on Sunday, Indian women are 15 per cent less likely to own a mobile phone and 33 per cent less likely to use mobile internet services than men.

• What are the key takeaways form the report ‘India Inequality Report 2022: Digital Divide’?

• According to the report, which states, has the highest and least internet penetration?

• What is UN e-government?

• The report also welcomes several initiatives by state and union governments in India to promote digital literacy, availability, accessibility, and affordability of the digital technologies-Know the initiatives taken by Union and state government.

• What do you understand by Digital-Divide?

• What are the challenges faced due to the digital divide among women across the country?

• Digital India programme-Know the background

• How do you explain Digital India?

• The Digital India programme is centred on three key vision areas-Know that three key Vision areas

• What is the main purpose of Digital India?

• Digital India aims to provide the much needed thrust to the nine pillars of growth areas. They are?

• What are the Approach and Methodology for Digital India programme adopted by Government of India?

• What are Various Schemes of Digital India programme?

• Significant Achievements of Digital India-Know in detail

• What are the issues and challenges associated with Digital India Programme?

• Why digital literacy is important for rural women?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍How Digital Literacy Can Bring in More Women to The Workforce

THE WORLD

Indonesia: Alert at highest level in Java island as volcano erupts

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.

Mains Examination: General Studies I: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- A volcano erupted in Indonesia on Sunday spewing a cloud of ash 15 km into the sky and forcing the evacuation of nearly 2,000 people, authorities said, as they issued their highest warning for the area in the east of Java island.

• What is volcano?

• Map Work-Semeru volcano

• What is Semeru volcano ‘s eruptive history?

• Volcanoes and Volcanic Landforms-Know in detail

• Know the Types of Volcanoes

• Plate Tectonics, Volcanoes and Earthquake-connect the dots

• How can volcanic eruptions affect the environment and natural ecosystem?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:  

📍Human and Environmental Impacts of Volcanic Ash

Previous Year question based on Same theme

📍Mention the global occurrence of volcanic eruptions in 2021 and their impact on regional environment. (GS-1, 2021)

ECONOMY

Digital lending: No clarity, awaiting RBI response, say bank & fintechs

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development

Mains Examination: 

• General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

• General Studies III: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Two months after the Reserve Bank issued guidelines on digital lending, banks, non-banking financial companies and fintech players are still awaiting clarity on many aspects, including the First Loss Default Guarantee (FLDG) system and challenges that banks face while collaborating with fintechs. On the other hand, hundreds of illegal lending apps, which are not under the RBI ambit, are yet to be reined in by the state governments.

• What are the guidelines issued by Reserve Bank on digital lending?

• What is Digital Lending?

• Why digital lending?

• What is a first loss default guarantee (FLDG)?

• Which type of banking sector comes under these New Guidelines?

• How RBI classifies Digital Lenders?

• What are the issues, challenges and concerns related to Digital Lending?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:   

📍Digital lending norms: Direct credit to a/c, sans third party

For any queries and feedback, contact priya.shukla@indianexpress.com
The UPSC KEY 
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First published on: 05-12-2022 at 17:30 IST
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