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UPSC Weekly Quiz — January 15 to 21, 2023

Brush up your current affairs knowledge for this week and consolidate your UPSC-CSE preparation. Find answers along with explanations at the end of the quiz. Also, attempt a CSAT Comprehension passage.

upsc, upsc quiz, upsc weekly quiz, upsc essentials, upsc current affairs quiz, upsc prelims 2023, sarkari naukri, government jobsPadayappa strolling through a tea plantation (Photo: Twitter/Munnar Forest Division)

UPSC Weekly Quiz is a current affairs-based quiz on some relevant topics from the past week, curated for the aspirants of competitive examinations. Attempt the weekly quiz every Saturday and find answers to the MCQs with explanations at the end of the article. CSAT Comprehension passage included below.

Question 1

The theme for 2023 World Economic Forum (WEF)  in Davos  meeting is:

(a) ‘History at a Turning Point’ 

(b) ‘Cooperation in a Fragmented World’

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(c) ‘The Great Reset’ 

(d) ‘Recover Together, Recover Stronger’

Question 2

Which of the following statements are incorrect with regards to the Annual Status of Education Report  (ASER) 2022?

1. School enrollment has touched a record high.

2. Proportion of girls enrolled in schools has dropped across age groups.

3. Proportion of children in government schools has decreased.

4. There is a drop in numeracy skill but not as large as drop in reading skills.

(a) Only 1

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 4 only

(d) 1 and 4 only

Question 3

With reference to “women getting command roles in the Indian Army”, consider the following statements:

1. Women are now eligible in core combat arms such as Infantry, Mechanised Infantry and Armoured Corps.

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2. The Army, being the largest of the three services, has the largest number of women officers.

3. Once promoted to a Colonel, an officer is eligible to command troops directly in the Army.

Which of the above statements are correct?

(a) Only 1

(b) Only 2

(c) 1 and 2 only

(d) 2 and 3 only

Question 4

Match the countries with climate news

1. Scotland                       i) 2021 UN Climate Change Conference

2. Poland                            ii)Opened its first new coal mine in 30 years

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3. United Kingdom        iii)Suspended a ban on use of lignite

Which of the following option is correct

(a) 1-i). 2-iii), 3-ii)

(b) 1-i), 2-ii), 3-iii)

(c) 1-ii), 2-i), 3-iii)

(d) 1-ii), 2-iii), 3-ii)

Question 5

With reference to chargesheet, consider the following statements:

1. Like ‘First Information Report’ or FIR, it is defined in the CrPC.

2. They are not ‘public documents’ and enabling their free public access violates the provisions of the Criminal Code of Procedure.

Which of the above statements are correct?

(a) Only 1

(b) Only 2

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Question 6

With reference to trademark, consider the following statements:

1. A trademark is valid for a lifetime of the company.

2. ‘Passing off’  is one of the ways in which a trademark can be infringed.

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3. The Trademark Act,1999, governs the regime on trademark and its registration.

Which of the above statements are correct?

(a) Only 1

(b) Only 1 and 2

(c) Only 2 and 3

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Question 7

Often seen in news, ‘wolf warrior’ diplomacy is connected with:

(a) United States

(b) China

(c) Russia

(d) India

Question 8

Recently seen in news, PT 7 refers to:

(a) an animal

(b) a Malware

(c) an Internet of Things tool

(d) a crop

Question 9

Consider the following pairs:

Project                                                         Place

1.Ken-Betwa Link                               Chhattisgarh

2.Dibang hydel Project                   Arunachal Pradesh

3.Kulda coal mine                            Odisha

4.Tamnar thermal plant                Chhattisgarh

Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 3

(b) 2,3 and 4

(c) 1,2 and 3

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

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Question 10

With reference to Total Fertility Rate (TFR), consider the following statements:

1. The TFR has fallen sharply for India in the past three decades. 

2. A TFR of 2.1 is considered as “replacement-level fertility”.

3. Populations can keep growing even with TFRs falling.

Which of the above statements are true?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 and 3

(c) 1 and 3

(d) 1, 2 and 3

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CSAT Comprehension

Read the following passage and answer the item that follow the passage. Your answer to the item should be based on the passage only.

It was found that as it got noisier underwater, both dolphins changed their behaviour to communicate and work together. Apart from raising the volume and increasing the length of their calls, they also changed their body language — they turned their bodies towards each other and swam across the lagoon to be closer to each other. Researchers noted despite these attempts to compensate for the noisy background, the dolphins had less success with the task. According to the study, “cooperative task success decreased in the presence of noise, dropping from 85 per cent during ambient noise control trials to 62.5 per cent during the highest noise exposure.” Previous studies have demonstrated that dolphins change their behaviour when they come across boats but, before the latest research, no one observed how anthropogenic noise can impact the coordination among these aquatic creatures. Marine animals are known to use sound to navigate, find food and protect themselves. As sound travels faster in water than air, it makes for an important mode of communication because it can convey a lot of information quickly and over long distances. Scientists believe that fish species rely on sounds during reproductive activities, including mate attraction, courtship and mate choice.

Question 

Based on the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:

1. Water pollution lead to disruption of marine life.

2. Marine communication under water is quicker due to the speed of sound.

Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

(a) Only 1

(b) Only 2

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

(Source: Noise pollution affects dolphins’ ability to communicate: What new study says by Alind Chauhan )

ANSWERS TO MCQs

1. (b)

FYI

‘Recover Together, Recover Stronger’ was the motto of G20 2022.

2. (b)

FYI

According to the 17th ASER report released in New Delhi on Wednesday, as the pandemic ebbed, school enrolment touched a record high in 2022 — 98.4% children in the 6-14 age group are now in school, up from 97.2% in 2018, when the last full pre-pandemic survey was conducted by Pratham. The proportion of girls not enrolled in schools has also reduced across age groups. For girls aged 11-14, this share dropped from 4.1% in 2018 to 2% in 2022. Back in 2006, the share of out-of-school girls in this age bracket stood at 10.3 per cent. Proportion of children in government schools up from 65.6% in 2018 to 72.9% in 2022.

There has also been a drop in numeracy levels, though not as steep as for reading skills. The basic reading ability of children in Class 3 dipped by 6.8 percentage points (from 27.3% in 2018 to 20.5% in 2022), and that of students in Class 5 came down by 7.6 percentage points (from 50.4% in 2018 to 42.8% in 2022). The proportion of children in Class 3 who could do at least subtraction fell from 28.2% in 2018 to 25.9% in 2022, and that of students in Class 5 fell from 27.9% in 2018 to 25.6% in 2022.

3. (d)

Statement 1 is correct.

FYI

As many as 108 women officers in the Army are set to be cleared for the rank of Colonel (selection grade) by January 22 by a special selection board, which will make them eligible to command units and troops in their respective arms and services for the first time.

What exactly does commanding a unit mean?

Once promoted to a Colonel, an officer is eligible to command troops directly in the Army, which is an acknowledgment of the leadership qualities of the officer. It is considered a coveted appointment because in no other rank — including higher ranks like Brigadier or Major General — does an officer interact directly with troops on the ground.

In which arms and services will women officers command units?

Women officers in many streams of the Army, including the Army Air Defence, Signals, Engineers, Army Aviation, Electronics and Mechanical Engineers, Army Service Corps, Army Ordnance Corps, and Intelligence Corps will be commanding units.

How many women serve in the Indian armed forces?

The Army, being the largest of the three services, has the largest number of women officers at 1,705, followed by 1,640 women officers in the IAF, and 559 in the Navy. This data was submitted by the government to Parliament last year.

They are still not eligible in core combat arms such as Infantry, Mechanised Infantry and Armoured Corps, as the Army is not open to women fighting wars at the borders as foot soldiers. Much of this resistance stems from past instances of male soldiers being taken as prisoners of war and tortured by the enemy.

However, the Army has recently decided to open the Corps of Artillery, a combat support arm, to women.

4. (a)

FYI

In December in 2022, the UK declared to open its first new coal mine in the country in 30 years in Cumbria, Forbes reported. However, the government said the coal would be used for producing steel, not power. Poland suspended a ban on “the use of lignite — the most polluting type of coal — for heating homes until April 2023 to ease the supply crisis” in September 2022. These developments stood in contrast to the 2021 agreement made by countries to phase down their use of coal at the United Nations climate conference in Glasgow, Scotland.

A small village in Western Germany that is set to be destroyed for the expansion of a coal mine was cleared of activists, including Swedish climate activist Greta Thunberg, on January 15. More than 1,100 police personnel were involved in an eviction drive that began on January 11 after thousands of protestors descended to nearby areas of Lützerath. They were demonstrating against the government’s decision to expand the Garzweiler coal mine.

5. (b)

Statement 1 is incorrect as FIR is not defined either in CrPC or IPC.

FYI

The Supreme Court on Friday held that chargesheets are not ‘public documents’ and enabling their free public access violates the provisions of the Criminal Code of Procedure as it compromises the rights of the accused, victim, and the investigation agencies. Before dismissing the PIL seeking directions to the police or investigating agencies like the ED or the CBI, a two-judge bench of Justice MR Shah and Justice CT Ravikumar also cautioned against the possibility of ‘misuse’.

What is a chargesheet?

A chargesheet, as defined under Section 173 CrPC, is the final report prepared by a police officer or investigative agencies after completing their investigation of a case.

A chargesheet must be filed against the accused within a prescribed period of 60-90 days, otherwise the arrest is illegal and the accused is entitled to bail.

Chargesheet Vs FIR

The term ‘chargesheet’ has been expressly defined under Section 173 of the CrPC but ‘First Information Report’ or FIR, has not been defined in either the Indian Penal Code (IPC) or the CrPC. Instead, it finds a place under the police regulations/ rules under Section 154 of CrPC, which deals with ‘Information in Cognizable Cases’.

While the chargesheet is the final report filed towards the end of an investigation, an FIR is filed at the ‘first’ instance’ that the police is informed of a cognizable offense or offence for which one can be arrested without a warrant; such as rape, murder, kidnapping.

Further, an FIR does not decide a person’s guilt but a chargesheet is complete with evidence and is often used during the trial to prove the offenses the accused is charged with.

After filing an FIR, the investigation takes place. Only if the police have sufficient evidence can the case be forwarded to the Magistrate, otherwise, the accused is released from custody under Section 169 of the CrPC. The law laid down by the Supreme Court in 1967 in Abhinandan Jha & Ors vs Dinesh Mishra reiterates this.

Finally, the FIR should be filed at the first instance of receiving knowledge of the occurrence of a cognizable offense. According to Section 154 (3) of the CrPC, if any person is aggrieved by the refusal of authorities to file FIR, they can send the complaint to the Superintendent of Police, who will either investigate himself or direct it to their subordinate.

A chargesheet is filed by the police or law-enforcement/ investigative agency only after they have gathered sufficient evidence against the accused in respect of the offenses mentioned in the FIR, otherwise, a ‘cancellation report’ or ‘untraced report’ can be filed when due to lack of evidence.

6. (c)

Statement 1 is incorrect

FYI

A ‘sub’ is not only a sandwich from Subway, the Delhi High Court ruled last week, and dismissed a case of trademark infringement brought by the global fast food chain against Suberb, a Delhi-based restaurant. The term ‘sub’ is widely used for submarine sandwiches — a cylindrical bread roll slit lengthwise and filled — the court said on January 12.

What is a trademark?

A trademark is a symbol, design, word or phrase that is identified with a business. When a trademark is registered, its owner can claim “exclusive rights” on its use.

The Trademark Act,1999, governs the regime on trademark and its registration. The Act guarantees protection for a trademark that is registered with the Controller General of Patents, Designs, and Trademarks, also known as the trademark registry. A trademark is valid for 10 years, and can be renewed by the owner indefinitely every 10 years.

Violation of trademark

Using a registered trademark without authorisation of the entity that owns the trademark is a violation or infringement of the trademark.

Using a substantially similar mark for similar goods or services could also amount to infringement. In such cases, courts have to determine whether this can cause confusion for consumers between the two.

There are several ways in which a trademark can be infringed. However, the trademark owner has to show that the trademark has a distinct character.

DECEPTIVE SIMILARITY: The law states that a mark is considered deceptively similar to another mark if it nearly resembles that other mark, confusing the consumer in the process. Such deception can be caused phonetically, structurally or visually.

PASSING OFF: Say, a brand logo is misspelt in a way that’s not easy for the consumer to discern. In such cases, the infringing products need not be identical — but similarity in the nature, character, and performance of the goods of the rival traders has to be established. (Cadila Healthcare Limited vs Cadila Pharmaceuticals Limited, 2001) Essentially, for a claim of ‘passing off’, some form of deception, misrepresentation, or harm to goodwill and reputation to the owner of a mark has to be established.

7. (b)

In recent weeks, China launched a personnel reshuffle on the foreign policy front. Beijing appointed Qin Gang, former Chinese ambassador to the US, as the new foreign minister while former foreign ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian was transferred to the department of boundary and ocean affairs.

Some political analysts view these changes as possible signs that China may be pivoting from the hardline “wolf-warrior diplomacy” that has characterized China’s foreign policy over the last few years. However, some experts say the personnel reshuffling doesn’t necessarily change the trajectory of China’s diplomatic approach.

FYI

What does wolf warrior diplomacy mean?

A term that gained popularity, especially after Xi became President, “wolf warrior diplomacy” is a tactic for the Chinese government to extend its ideology beyond China and counter the West and defend itself. It is an unofficial term for the more aggressive and confrontational style of communication that Chinese diplomats have taken to in the last decade.

8. (a)

FYI

On Saturday (January 21) morning, a fully equipped team comprising 26 Forest Department officials entered the forest near Palakkad, Kerala to neutralise rogue elephant PT 7 (Palakkad Tusker 7), locally known as Padayappa, after the eponymous 1999 Rajinikanth blockbuster. The team led by Chief Veterinary Officer Arun Zachariah has launched an operation to capture the truant tusker and relocate it to the Wayanad Elephant Camp.

9. (b)

Ken-Betwa Link

It will connect the tributaries of the Yamuna River, namely the Ken river in the Panna district of Madhya Pradesh and the Betwa river in Uttar Pradesh.

FYI  

Ken Betwa link to new Goa airport to Odisha mine: 6 mega projects ignore green commitments they made

There are six mega projects across key sectors, cleared between 2004 and 2020. In each, stringent conditions to compensate for the project’s high environmental impact have been sidestepped, ignored or, in some cases, met only on paper, an investigation of their records by The Indian Express revealed.

10. (d)

FYI

China’s population, according to its National Bureau of Statistics, fell to 1,411.8 million in 2022, from 1,412.6 million in the previous year. An absolute decline in population is a landmark event, for a country that is soon set to be surpassed — if it has not already — by India as home to the most number of people. India has not conducted an official headcount Census after 2011. But going by the United Nations projections, its population stood at 1,417.2 million in 2022 (more than China’s) and is expected to reach 1,428.6 million in 2023.

A country’s population increases with reduction in mortality or relative number of deaths. The population growth slows — and may even go into reverse, like it has now for China — with declining fertility rates.

Mortality falls with increased education levels, public health and vaccination programmes, access to food and medical care, and provision of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities. The crude death rate (CDR) — the number of persons dying per year per 1,000 population — was 23.2 for China and 22.2 for India in 1950. It fell to single digits for China first in 1974 (to 9.5) and for India in 1994 (9.8), and further to 7.3-7.4 for both in 2020.

Another mortality indicator is life expectancy at birth. Between 1950 and 2020, it went up from 43.7 to 78.1 years for China and from 41.7 to 70.1 years for India.

China population, China population shrinks, China India population, China demographics, China population decline explained, Indian Express

(Chart  shows how sharply the TFR has fallen for India in the last three decades)

The total fertility rate (TFR) — the number of babies an average woman bears over her lifetime — was as high as 5.8 for China and 5.7 for India in 1950. The TFR has fallen sharply for India in the past three decades. Between 1992-93 and 2019-21, it came down from 3.4 to 2; the fall was especially significant in the rural areas.

A TFR of 2.1 is considered as “replacement-level fertility”. Simply understood, a woman having two children replaces herself and her partner with two new lives. Since all infants may not survive, the replacement TFR is taken at slightly above two.

The next question then is: If India’s TFR is already below-replacement, why is its population still increasing? And how has China’s finally shrunk?

Sustained lows necessary

The TFR is the average number of births by women aged 15-49 based on surveys for a particular period/year. Populations can keep growing even with TFRs falling. De-growth requires TFRs to remain below replacement levels for extended periods. The effects of that — fewer children today becoming parents tomorrow and procreating just as much or less — may reflect only after a couple of generations.

Answer to the CSAT Comprehension: (b)

FYI

Statement 1 is invalid: The passage talks only about noise underwater. (Your answer to the item should be based on the passage only, as per instructions.)

Statement 2 is valid: Marine animals are known to use sound to navigate, find food and protect themselves. As sound travels faster in water than air, it makes for an important mode of communication because it can convey a lot of information quickly and over long distances. (Direct reference, an easy pick)

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Share your views, answers and suggestions in the comment box or at manas.srivastava@indianexpress.com

First published on: 21-01-2023 at 20:29 IST
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