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Acute Hepatitis E infection in pregnancy: Pointers to keep in mind

Each year, more than 20 million estimated cases of Hepatitis E virus infection occur globally. It was first recognised in 1978 during an epidemic in Kashmir Valley.

Published: February 22, 2020 4:18:07 pm
pregnancy, Acute Hepatitis E infection Hepatitis E infection during pregnancy can cause acute liver failure. (Source: Getty Images)

By Dr Swapnil Sharma

Hepatitis E is a virus which infects the liver; most times, a patient’s condition improves or he/she recovers completely after acute hepatitis infection within a few weeks or months. Sometimes, this infection can be dangerous and might lead to Fulminant Acute Liver Failure – a life threatening condition in which the liver fails. Patients with acute liver failure need to undergo urgent liver transplantation.

Each year, more than 20 million estimated cases of Hepatitis E virus infection occur globally. It was first recognised in 1978 during an epidemic in Kashmir Valley. A majority of the sporadic and epidemic cases of acute viral hepatitis in India are caused by Hepatitis E virus.

Pregnancy and vulnerability towards ALF

Pregnant women are more vulnerable to this infection and the risk of mortality also spikes in this phase. A Hepatitis E infection during third trimester of the pregnancy, especially with genotype 1, can cause more severe infection and might lead to liver failure and maternal death in up to 15 to 25 per cent patients. During pregnancy, there are some immunologic and hormonal changes which promote the maintenance of the foetus in the maternal environment. Because of these immunologic changes, pregnant women are more susceptible to viral infections like Hepatitis E.

The infection during pregnancy can cause acute liver failure (ALF), which is manifested by jaundice, followed by coagulopathy. There are studies which have shown that pregnant patients with acute Hepatitis E infection can progress to ALF in 15-60 per cent patients. There are around 50 per cent chances of transmission of this infection from mother to the child. This can cause still births or neonatal mortality. So Acute Hepatitis E infection during pregnancy is a critical risk for both mother and her child as well.

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Transmission of Hep-E

Hepatitis E is a water-borne pathogen and this infection is transmitted by the faecal-oral route, which means that the patient can catch this infection if they drink or eat something that has been in contact with the stool of someone who has been infected with this virus. That is why this infection is more common in countries with poor handwashing habits and lack of clean drinking water supply. Direct person to person transmission of this infection is uncommon. Hepatitis E is a RNA virus with four genotypes, of which type 1 genotype is common in Asia. There are evidences which show that Hepatitis E virus is an important contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality in South Asia, especially if the infection occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy with genotype 1.

Symptoms

Usually, symptoms of acute Hepatitis E virus infection starts two to six weeks after infection. Sometimes patients may not have any symptoms and disease resolves on its own without any treatment. Or they can experience fever, nausea, vomiting, yellowness of eyes, loss of appetite, feeling tired, abdominal pain or discomfort.

Management of patients with ALF

Acute liver failure patients should be managed in a centre where liver transplant facility is available. If patient meets liver transplant criteria, they should be listed immediately for cadaveric donor liver transplantation list. Acute Liver Failure patients are given priority when cadaveric organ is available in the city, over the chronic patients. At the same time, blood group matching donors should be identified in the family and evaluated if they are willing to donate a part of their liver without any pressure or financial benefit. Liver transplantation is the only treatment option when patients with acute liver failure do not respond to medical management.

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Prevention

Maintaining personal hygiene, improving sanitary conditions, using clean drinking water, proper sewage disposal, appropriate hand hygiene and awareness about the infection and method of its spread are the mainstay for the prevention of Hepatitis E virus infection.

(The writer is Consultant, Liver Transplant & HPB Surgery, Fortis Hospital, Mulund.)

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