The Election Laws Amendment Act of 1975, to the extent it had been put in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution, amounted to a constitutional amendment, Shanti Bhushan, counsel for Raj Narain, told the Supreme Court. It could, therefore, be tested on the principle of basic features. Bhushan was answering the bench on how ordinary laws passed by Parliament could be tested on the principle of undefined basic features. Parliament, by placing an ordinary law in the Ninth Schedule, had exercised its constituent power. Thus the basic features of the Constitution had been attracted. If the act had not been given the protection of the Ninth Schedule, its validity could have been tested under Articles 14, 19, etc. Since they had been suspended during the Emergency, the only course open to the court was to stay the proceedings until the Emergency was over.
More Than Epics
The Ramayana and Mahabharata were not concoctions, B.B. Lal, a former DG of the ASI, said. Excavations at Ayodhya showed the lowest levels of habitation do not go beyond 8th century B.C. As the Hastinapur excavations place the Mahabharata war around the 9th century B.C., Rama was born after Krishna, if these figures ever lived in these cities. Lal felt these epics were historical evidence of the movement of the Aryans into India from the west towards the east. Their exploits in the Kuru-Panchala region (western UP) were recounted in the Mahabharata epic and the Ramayana records their story after they moved to the Kosala region (northeast UP).
Parts of Paris are in danger of sinking into the ground, and the authorities have invoked an emergency plan to prevent roads and buildings from collapsing, a report said. The threat to the capital was disclosed in a report this weekend by the Paris prefect, who ordered an official inquiry and halted construction work over a 1,200 hectare area.