March 14, 2012 2:41:54 am
Akhilesh,young and educated,reflects OBC aspirations in rural heartland
A television channel has anointed Akhilesh Yadav as the new Nawab of Lucknow. Im not sure he sees himself as one. At 38,he perhaps sees himself as representative of the 65 per cent of Indias population below the age of 35. Despite being the son of his father,he presents a clear break from the latters world view.
In allowing Akhilesh to become the chief minister of UP,Mulayam Singh Yadav has been sagacious,perhaps realising that thereby the SP may stand more of a chance to consolidate its position before the 2014 elections. Or,he may have decided that it is the best rebuff to the Congress and the Gandhi family,Mayawati and even the media. For,the Delhi-obsessed English-language media had been so focused on Rahul Gandhi that it completely missed the Akhilesh phenomenon. While the media now decides to lionise Akhilesh,he has refused to be patronised by it,as was evident from his consistent use of Hindi to answer questions in English on a TV channel. It is not that Akhilesh is uncomfortable with English,rather it seems he does not wish to be co-opted into the Congresss circle of young friends from other parties,as Omar Abdullah and others sharing the elite background of the Gandhi family have been.
Mulayam,despite his anti-computer and anti-English former avatar,made sure that his son got an engineering degree from the south and a masters from a foreign university. Akhileshs success may ironically represent an opportunity for current generation of OBC parents to fulfil their own greatest wish to access a good education for their children,both girls and boys.
To understand why the younger Yadav has emerged victor,one has to understand the peculiar history of OBCs. The OBCs in the south achieved progress in the last century due to anti-Brahmin movements that focused on empowerment of the masses and opened up educational opportunities for most castes. The north saw fractured caste movements,either attempting upward mobility through Sanskritisation or seeking a distinct religious identity outside caste,as with the Dalit castes. Post-independence,the large mass of the northern OBCs remained tied to their land- and animal husbandry-based livelihoods remaining economically content and resistant to social change. Education was not considered very important as future generations were socialised into caste and family occupations. Both girls and boys were married early (another inhibitor to education). Slowly,democracy advantaged them politically due to their numbers and they came to exercise a fair amount of clout in rural society. While they looked up to the upper castes,their local-level conflicts were more often with Dalits who occupied a position below them in the rural social structure. Hence,they were often perceived as oppressors of and by Dalits. The Congresss patronage of Dalits kept the vast middle the collection of castes called OBCs untended to. Before the Congress knew it,the logic of numbers had worked against them and regional parties headed by OBCs began to hold power in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
As the OBCs consolidated their economic and political power (the latter through a tactical engagement with the Muslims which they could not have done with the Dalits),they became a force to contend with. But their lack of education kept them as ruralites,without the cultural capital needed to transform themselves into a modern force. Their agenda remained one of consolidating local political and economic power.
This has now changed. Nitish Kumar was the first to realise that caste engineering may matter for elections but it is the education and development agenda that now drives voters. Armed with an engineering degree,he first led the charge to modernise the OBC mindset and make the development of Bihar his single-point agenda. With a soft touch,he set out to tap into the aspirations of the vast population of non-Brahmin Biharis. It helps that he refuses to be projected as a prime minister aspirant before the work in Bihar is done.
Akhilesh,an educated and Net-savvy young OBC,has probably learnt from what is happening in the neighbouring state of Bihar and hopefully knows what not to do in UP. What will help him is the desire of two hundred million people wanting to embrace the modern world. Thanks to reservations,the Dalits have a small and modern middle class now; the OBCs in rural areas too wish to be seen as a modern middle class. This is one explanation why OBCs and even Jats in Haryana seek reservations which entitle them to easier access to educational institutions and jobs in the bureaucracy.
Interestingly,reservations for OBCs may serendipitously be affecting the OBC girl child OBC parents are now willing to pay for daughters to enter engineering institutions. Earlier,educating a daughter was considered worthless,if not dangerous. If the Akhilesh-Nitish combination continues to respond to the call of UP-Bihar,they may yet be our best bet to prevent Indias demographic dividend from turning into a demographic disaster.
The writer teaches at IIT Delhi
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