Trying to shed those extra kilos? Chewing slowly and refraining from eating for two hours before bedtime may help, scientists say. Changes in eating habits were strongly associated with lower obesity and weight (BMI), and smaller waist circumference, according to researchers from Kyushu University in Japan.
The findings are based on health insurance data for nearly 60,000 people with diabetes in Japan who submitted claims and had regular health check-ups between 2008 and 2013. The data included information on the dates of consultations and treatments, while the check-ups included measurements of weight (BMI) and waist circumference, and the results of tests for blood chemistry, urine, and liver function.
During the check-ups, participants were quizzed about their lifestyle, including their eating and sleep habits as well as alcohol and tobacco use. They were specifically asked about their eating speed, which was categorised as fast, normal or slow.
They were asked whether they did any of the following three or more times a week: eat dinner within two hours of going to sleep; snack after dinner; and skip breakfast. More than a third (36.5 per cent) of participants had one check-up over the six years, while just under a third (29.5 per cent) had two. One in five (20 per cent) had three.
At the start of the study, some 22,070 people routinely wolfed down their food; 33,455 ate at a normal speed, and 4,192 lingered over every mouthful.
The slow-eaters tended to be healthier and to have a healthier lifestyle than either the fast or normal speed eaters.
Around half of the total sample changed their eating speed over the course of the six years. All the aspects of eating and sleeping habits studied, as well as alcohol consumption and previous obesity–defined as a BMI of 25 kilograms per square metres were significantly associated with obesity.
After taking account of potentially influential factors, the results showed that compared with those who tended to gobble up their food, those who ate at a normal speed were 29 per cent less likely to be obese, rising to 42 per cent for those who ate slowly.
Although absolute reductions in waist circumference–an indicator of a potentially harmful midriff bulge–were small, they were greater among the slow and normal speed eaters.
Snacking after dinner and eating within two hours of going to sleep three or more times a week were also strongly linked to changes in BMI. However, skipping breakfast was not.