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Tuesday, January 18, 2022

Poverty index: UP, Bihar, MP districts lagging

Union Territory of Puducherry has among the lowest multidimensional poverty in each of its four districts: Yanam at 5.18%, Karaikal at 3.13%, Puducherry at 1.30%, and Mahe at 0.08%. Overall poverty ratio in the UT is 1.72%.

By: ENS Economic Bureau | New Delhi |
November 28, 2021 4:36:57 am
Poverty index: UP, Bihar, MP districts laggingAmong states, Bihar has the highest proportion of people — at 51.91% of its population — who are multidimensionally poor. (Express File/Representative)

Three districts in Uttar Pradesh has nearly 70 per cent and above population who are multidimensionally poor, and Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh combined have the top 10 districts with highest poverty ratio among states, according to the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) report prepared by the NITI Aayog.

Kerala is a standout state with lowest percentage of population being multidimensionally poor at 0.71%, with nine out of its 14 districts having poverty ratio of less than 1%. Kottayam is an outlier district with not even a single poor person.

This is based on data analysed from the first ever MPI report, which puts the all-India poverty ratio at 25.01%. The MPI seeks to measure poverty across its multiple dimensions and in effect complements existing poverty statistics based on per capita consumption
expenditure.

It has three equally weighted dimensions — health, education, and standard of living — which in turn are represented by 12 indicators such as nutrition, school attendance, years of schooling, drinking water, sanitation, housing, bank accounts, among others.

Among states, Bihar has the highest proportion of people — at 51.91% of its population — who are multidimensionally poor. Eleven Bihar districts have poverty ratio above 60%, with highest rate of 64.75% in Kishanganj, followed by Araria (64.65%), Madhepura (64.43%), Purba Champaran (64.13), and Supaul (64.10%).

The lowest ratio was in Patna at 29.20%, followed by Bhojpur (40.50%), Siwan (40.55%), Rohtas (40.74%), and Munger (40.99%).

Three districts in Uttar Pradesh has poverty ratio of nearly 70% and more: Shrawasti (74.38%), Bahraich (71.88%), and Balrampur (69.45%). Lucknow has the lowest poverty ratio in the state at 12.16%, followed by Kanpur Nagar (14.34%), Gautam Budh Nagar (17.08%), and Ghaziabad (17.47%). Other key districts in UP have variations in poverty ratios such as 40.79% for Unnao, 34.10% for Rai Bareli, 35.33% for Mathura, and 33.59% for Agra. Overall poverty ratio in the state is 37.79%, according to th MPI report.

Nine out Kerala’s 14 districts had poverty ratio of less than 1%, with Kottayam’s ratio at zero per cent, followed by Ernakulam (0.10%), Kozhikode (0.26%), and Thrissur (0.33%). The highest ratio in the state is in Wayanad district at 3.48 per cent. The overall poverty ratio in Kerala is 0.71%.

Union Territory of Puducherry has among the lowest multidimensional poverty in each of its four districts: Yanam at 5.18%, Karaikal at 3.13%, Puducherry at 1.30%, and Mahe at 0.08%. Overall poverty ratio in the UT is 1.72%.

This baseline report of the national MPI measure is based on the reference period of 2015-16 of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), and provides analysis of the headcount ratio and intensity of multidimensional poverty at the national, state/UT, and district levels. The MPI uses the globally accepted methodology developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the UN Development Programme (UNDP).

Three districts in Madhya Pradesh has poverty ratio above 60 per cent: Barwani (61.60%, Jhabua (68.86%), and Alirajpur (71.31%). Districts with lowest poverty ratio in the state include Indore (10.86%), Bhopal (12.91%), and Jabalpur (19.50%).

In Maharashtra, Nandurbar has the highest poverty ratio at 52.12%, followed by Dhule (33.23%), Jalna at 29.41%, Hingoli at 28.05%, Nanded at 27.48%. Districts with lowest poverty in the state include Mumbai at 3.59%, Mumbai Suburban at 4.65%, Pune at 5.29%, Nagpur at 6.72%, and Bhandara at 8.19%. Overall poverty ratio in Maharashtra is at 14.85%.

In West Bengal, Purulia district had the highest poverty ratio at 49.69%, followed by Uttar Dinajpur (42.84%), Maldah (35.7%), South 24 Parganas (28.3%), and Birbhum (27.6%). Kolkata had the lowest poverty ratio in the state at 2.8%.

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