Updated: August 4, 2020 12:06:15 pm
After declining for two years, the average number of heat wave days increased 82.6 per cent year-on-year to 157 in 2019, with the highest number recorded in Rajasthan (20 days) followed by Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand (13 days each), the state-wise data in the EnviStats India 2020 report released by National Statistical Office (NSO) showed. The reversal of trend led to 2019 being the year with the third highest number of heat wave days in the decade after 254 days in 2010 and 189 days in 2012. The number of average cold wave days also reported an increase, though the latest data is for 2018 in the case: 45 in 2018, a rise of 55.2 per cent from 29 in 2017.
The data shows that acute respiratory infection led to 3,740 deaths in 2018 — the highest in six years (according to these provisional estimates). The highest number of deaths due to acute respiratory infection were reported in West Bengal (732), followed by Uttar Pradesh (699), Andhra Pradesh (587), Delhi (492).
Among the seven metropolitan cities — Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai — in 2018, particulate matter size less than or equal to 10 µm was the highest in Delhi (243), followed by Ahmedabad (236) and Mumbai (166). Delhi’s particulate matter increased by 0.8 per cent year-on-year, while that for Ahmedabad increased by 96 per cent and Mumbai increased by 9.9 per cent in 2018.
While tube well/hand pump remained the primary source of drinking water in rural India, piped water was the primary source in urban areas. However, in rural areas, among states having bottled water as the principal source of drinking water in 2018, Delhi ranked at the top with 33.4 per cent households relying on it, followed by Andhra Pradesh (30.5 per cent), Daman & Diu (27.6 per cent), Telangana (26.3 per cent). In urban areas, Daman & Diu has the highest share of households (40.4 per cent) using bottled water as principal drinking water source, followed by Telangana (31.4 per cent), Andhra Pradesh (28.6 per cent).
The other key findings of the report are as follows:
The deaths due to heat wave also recorded a sharp jump in 2019 to 373 from 26 in 2018, but was slightly lower than 375 in 2017. To put the numbers in perspective, the country had reported 510 deaths due to heat wave in 2016 and 2081 in 2015. Deaths due to cold wave recorded a sharp drop in 2019 by falling to 61 from 279 in 2018.
34.2 per cent of total deaths were due to lightning in 2018, lower than 40.4 per cent in 2017. The share of deaths due to heat stroke among total deaths, however, reduced to 12.9 per cent in 2018 from 15.8 per cent in 2017.
Natural extreme events led to greater loss of cattle and damage to houses in 2018-19, even as 2045 people lost lives in 2018-19, lower than 2057 lives lost in the previous year. The impact of Kerala floods was visible with the state losing 477 lives and 6.54 lakh houses getting damaged in 2018-19, the highest among all states. Himachal Pradesh followed next with loss of 343 lives due to natural extreme events in 2018-19.
Tube well/hand pump remained the primary source of drinking water in rural India in 2018 with 53.8 per cent share, while piped water/ tap/ public tap/ standpipe was the primary source in urban areas with 65 per cent share.
In rural areas, among states having bottled water as the principal source of drinking water in 2018, Delhi ranked at the top with 33.4 per cent households relying on it, followed by Andhra Pradesh (30.5 per cent), Daman & Diu (27.6 per cent), Telangana (26.3 per cent). 97.2% of the households in Bihar are dependent on tube wells/ hand pumps as principal drinking water source, followed by Uttar Pradesh (93.9 per cent).
In urban areas, Daman & Diu has the highest share of households (40.4 per cent) choosing bottled water as principal drinking water source, followed by Telangana (31.4 per cent), Andhra Pradesh (28.6 per cent). Delhi’s share for bottled water dropped to 13.6 per cent, with 77.2 per cent households having piped water/ tap/ public tap/ standpipe as the primary source of drinking water.
Andhra Pradesh has the highest percentage of slum population to urban population (36.10 per cent), followed by Chhattisgarh (31.98 per cent) and Madhya Pradesh (28.35 per cent).
Total 2.25 crore registered transport vehicles (including light motor vehicles, buses, taxis) and 23.07 crore non-transport vehicles (including two-wheelers, cars, jeeps, tractors) in 2017. The highest registered non-transport vehicles in 2017 were in Manipur (2.7 crore), followed by Andaman and Nicobar Islands (2.5 crore), Tripura (2.4 crore) and Haryana (2.0 crore). Out of total 7.3 crore registered motor vehicles in the country in 2017 in ‘million plus cities’ in India, Delhi has the highest number of registered motor vehicles (1.02 crore), followed by Bengaluru (68.3 lakh).
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