Lavrov drove straight from the airport to attend the meeting which was also attended by newly appointed Foreign Secretary S Jaishankar.
Officials said that over an hour long talks focused on initiatives to further friendship between the two countries.
Talks focused on the vision document called Druzhba-Dosti issued during the visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin to India in 2014, aimed at strengthening the Indian-Russian partnership over the next decade.
The document focused on further cooperation in energy, technology and innovation, expanded economic engagement and global order and world peace.
Both Swaraj and Lavrov would attend the trilateral foreign ministers meeting along with Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi to discuss initiatives for cooperation.
Swaraj, who arrived on January 31, would take part in the launch of Visit Of India Year function followed by a meeting with Chinese President Xi Jinping.