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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Gandhi Jayanti 2019 Highlights: Rural India declared open defecation-free, says PM

Gandhi Jayanti 2019: Several events have been organised across the country and the world today to mark the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.

By: Express Web Desk | New Delhi | Updated: October 2, 2019 10:20:41 pm
gandhi jayanti, gandhi jayanti 2019, gandhi jayanti live, gandhi jayanti news, mahatma gandhi jayanti, gandhi jayanti speech, pm modi, gandhi jayanti news, pm modi live, narendra modi, pm modi speech today, modi speech, gandhi jayanti news, lal bahadur shastri, lal bahadur shastri jayanti, lal bahadur shastri PM Modi at Sabarmati riverfront in Ahmedabad. (Express Photo: Javed Raja)

Gandhi Jayanti 2019 Live Updates:  Rural India and its villages have declared themselves ‘open defecation free’, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said on the occasion of Mahatma Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary Wednesday.

People were mobilised for ‘satyagarah’ on Mahatma Gandhi’s call, today they did the same for swachhagrah, he said in Ahmedabad. Modi arrived in the city to visit the Sabarmati Ashram. He visited Rajghat Tuesday morning to pay tribute to the Father of the Nation at his memorial. President Ram Nath Kovind, Vice President Venkaiah Naidu were also present there.

The Congress marked the day by undertaking padyatras — walking to the tunes of “Raghupati Raghav Raja Ram…” across the country. The ‘Gandhi Sandesh Yatra’ began from the Delhi Congress office Rajiv Bhavan at Deendayal Upadhyay Marg headed to Rajghat, about three kilometres away, with enthusiastic party workers waving flags and chanting the slogan ‘Mahatma Gandhi Amar Rahein’.

Numerous events were organised by various government departments, ministries and voluntary organisations to celebrate life and legacy of Gandhi, who besides leading the freedom struggle also inspired millions of people across the globe, including leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King Jr and the Dalai Lama. School, colleges and institutes across the country are organising special events today and through the week to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of the Mahatma.

Live Blog

PM Modi was in Gujarat on the occasion of Mahatma Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary. Read in Bangla

Highlights

    20:57 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    We have to achieve goal to eradicate single-use plastic by 2022: PM Modi

    PM Modi in Gujarat: Sanitation, conservation of environment and animals, all these things were dear to Gandhi ji. Plastic is a major threat to all of them. So, we have to achieve the goal to eradicate 'single-use plastic' from the country by the year 2022. 

    20:55 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Whole world is amazed: PM Modi on Swachh Bharat

    Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Ahmedabad: Today whole world is appreciating and awarding us. Providing toilets to more than 60 crore people in 60 months, building more than 11 crore toilets, the whole world is amazed by this.

    20:37 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Rural India declared open-defecation free: PM Modi

    Prime Minister Narendra Modi at 'Swachh Bharat Diwas' programme in Ahmedabad: Today rural India and its villages have declared themselves 'open defecation free'.

    20:30 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Satisfied that India fulfilling Gandhi's dream of Swachh Bharat: PM Modi in Sabarmati

    PM's message in visitor's book at Sabarmati Ashram: "I am satisfied that on the occasion of Gandhi At 150, we're witnessing the fulfillment of his dream of 'Swachh Bharat'. I feel lucky that on this occasion when India has successfully stopped open defecation I'm here at the ashram."

    20:09 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    PM Modi releases commemorative Rs 150 coin on Gandhi Jayanti

    Prime Minister Narendra Modi released a commemorative Rs 150 coin, on the occasion of Mahatma Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary in Ahmedabad

    19:48 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    PM arrives for 'Swachh Bharat Diwas' programme at Sabarmati Riverfront in Ahmedabad

    Prime Minister Narendra Modi arrived for the 'Swachh Bharat Diwas' programme at Sabarmati Riverfront in Ahmedabad. Chief Minister Vijay Rupani also present.

    19:31 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Gujarat: PM visits Sabarmati Riverfront

    After visiting the Sabarmati Ashram, Prime Minister Modi visited the Sabarmati Riverfront. 

    PM Modi at the Sabarmati Riverfront in Ahmedabad. (Source: ANI)
    18:56 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Ahmedabad: PM Modi pays tribute to Mahatma Gandhi at Sabarmati Ashram

    Prime Minister Narendra Modi reached Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad on Wednesday evening and paid tribute to Mahatma Gandhi. Gujarat CM Vijay Rupani was also present at the ashram.



    PM Modi at Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad. (Source: ANI)
    18:33 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Respect for India seen on Howdy, Modi event; Republicans, Democrats came together: PM

    We saw a glimpse of the respect India has at the world stage during the Howdy, Modi programme in Houston. At that programme, Republicans and Democrats spoke. Their coming was very special: PM Modi in Ahmedabad

    18:32 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Teachings of Mahatma Gandhi offers solution to any problem in the world: PM Modi

    Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Ahmedabad on occasion of Mahatma Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary. "Take any problem the world faces, the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi offer solutions to those challenges."

    18:29 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Respect for India increasing at world stage: PM Modi in Ahmedabad

    PM Modi in Ahmedabad: "India’s stature is rising at the world stage. Respect for India is increasing all over. One can experience the change. The world can see that India is at the forefront of several positive changes taking place at the world stage."

    18:25 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    PM Modi arrives in Ahmedabad, to visit Sabarmati Ashram

    Prime Minister Narendra Modi arrived in Ahmedabad. He will visit the Sabarmati Ashram today, on the occasion of Mahatma Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary

    18:00 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Gandhi or Godse: Congress' Digvijay Singh slams 'ideology that killed Mahatma'

    Addressing Congress workers on Mahatma Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary, party leader Digvijaya Singh said, "The ideology that killed Mahatma Gandhi is telling its workers to do padyatra in every panchayat for a month. I would like to ask them what will they do there and how will they project Gandhi ji? Will you put across Gandhi's side or Godse's side?"

    17:18 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Peace marches, drives against plastic use mark 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi

    Campaigns against single-use plastic and peace marches on Wednesday marked the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi in parts of Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh.

    Punjab Chief Minister Amarinder Singh and his Haryana counterpart Manohar Lal Khattar paid tributes to Mahatma Gandhi and called upon people to follow the path shown by Mahatma Gandhi.

    "Humble tributes to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th Birth Anniversary. May his commitment to truth, non-violence & compassion for all continue to guide us. Let us all come together & renew our commitment to Gandhiji's pledge to wipe every tear from every eye," Amarinder said in his tweet.

    Khattar, who took part in a swachhta campaign in Badshahpur, Gurgaon, said, "We should all take a pledge to follow footsteps of Mahatma Gandhi."

    16:53 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Gandhi Jayanti 2019: Inter-faith prayers organised in South Africa

    Inter faith prayer meetings were organised today in different cities of South Africa on Mahatma Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary. 

    16:51 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    UK remembers Mahatma on 150th birth anniversary
    16:33 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy at core of our work at UN: António Guterres

    UN Secretary-General António Guterres pays tribute to Mahatma Gandhi: "Mahatma Gandhi pioneered successive non-violent movements that changed history. 150 years since his birth, Gandhi’s philosophy is at the core of our work at the UN. May his courage & conviction continue to inspire us on Wednesday’s International Day of Non-Violence & every day."

    16:24 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Mahatma's statue unveiled in Nepal

    A statue of Mahatma Gandhi was unveiled today within the premises of Embassy of India in Kathmandu by Ambassador Manjeev Singh Puri. 

    16:22 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    On Gandhi Jayanti, revisiting the Kerala temple town where Gandhi helped fight untouchability

    At the Varkala ashram, Gandhi struck a historic conversation with Sree Narayana Guru, the Ezhava-born social reformer who grew to become one of Kerala’s most influential intellectual minds. Historian Ramachandra Guha writes in his book ‘Gandhi: The Years that Changed the World’ that Gandhi had come away greatly impressed with Guru’s ideas, even though they had different theological positions.

    The efforts of Gandhi, Periyar and thousands of others resulted in the Travancore administration climbing down from their earlier rigid positions and opening three of the four temple roads to people of the lower castes in 1925. But it was not until the Temple Entry Act in November, 1936, over a decade after the Vaikom agitation, that the doors of the temple and all the others in Travancore were thrown open to people of all castes by the state’s ruling family.

    READ MORE

    16:15 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Lankan president, PM pay tribute to Gandhi, bust unveiled

    Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe on Wednesday unveiled a bronze bust of Mahatma Gandhi at his official residence 'Temple Trees' here as he paid floral tribute to the Indian leader on his 150th birth anniversary.

    The bronze bust sculpted by the Padma Bhushan awardee Ram Vanji Suatr was unveiled at the Temple Trees in the presence of Indian High Commissioner to Sri Lanka Taranjit Singh Sandhu.

    Prime Minister Wickremesinghe unveiled a Gandhi bust on the occasion of Mahatma Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary at Temple Tree, the Indian embassy said.

    Sri Lanka also issued two commemorative stamps on the occasion. President Maithripala Sirisena also paid floral tributes to Gandhi.

    "To pay tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary, a special programme was held at the Presidential Secretariat in Colombo," a statement issued by the Indian mission said.

    16:00 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Cong needs Gandhian approach, must have 5,000 workers to serve people to get mojo back: Pitroda

    The Congress needs to take the "Gandhian approach" of public service and get 5,000 workers in every district dedicated to the cause of helping people to get its mojo back, technocrat-turned-politician Sam Pitroda said on Wednesday.

    He said all Congress leaders must spend six months studying the father of the nation on his 150th birth anniversary to be ideologically equipped.
    Pitroda, a long-time adviser of the Gandhi family and head of the Indian Overseas Congress, said the country is facing a "major conflict" for the idea of India.

    The Congress needs to keep talking about this ideological battle and take its message to the people, the 77-year-old told PTI over phone from Chicago.

    15:47 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    BJP starts drive on Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary, Congress slams it

    BJP president Amit Shah kicked-off a four-month-long exercise on Wednesday in an ambitious bid by the saffron party to claim the legacy of Mahatma Gandhi with its leaders across the country undertaking foot marches and addressing public events to mark his 150th birth anniversary.

    The Congress, which has seen over the years a gradual appropriation of some of its stalwarts by the BJP, launched a counter-drive with its president Sonia Gandhi taking a swipe at the Modi government, saying the Mahatma would have been pained by what has happened in India over the last few years.

    15:39 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Bihar CM Nitish Kumar pays tribute to Mahatma Gandhi

    Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar at the "Gandhi Vichar Samagam" event at Gyan Bhawan in Patna.

    15:21 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    UP legislature holds special session on Mahatma's anniversary, oppn boycotts

    The special 36-hour session of the UP legislature to mark Mahatma Gandhi's birth anniversary got underway on Wednesday, with Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath flaying the opposition's decision to boycott proceedings as not only an "insult" to the Father of the Nation but also a "contempt" of the House.

    The simultaneous sessions of the state assembly and legislative council begun at 11 am and will continue till Thursday night without a break.

    "I am astonished that the opposition, which had in an all-party meeting agreed to discuss issues concerning the poor, has boycotted proceedings. The opposition's decision to stay away from constructive discussion to form a concrete policy for development is not only an insult to Mahatma Gandhi but also a contempt of the House," he said addressing the state assembly.

    13:11 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Rahul Gandhi leads Congress ‘padyatra’ on Mahatma Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary

    Commemorating the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress leader Rahul Gandhi on Wednesday led a ‘padayatra’ to Mahatma Gandhi’s memorial Rajghat. The ‘Gandhi Sandesh Yatra’ began from Delhi Congress office Rajiv Bhavan at Deendayal Upadhyay Marg and headed to Rajghat, about three kilometers away.

    12:37 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    On Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary, telling his story in six languages from the Northeast

    This month MahatmaGandhi’s story will be told in a range of tribal languages from the Northeast — in Adi, Apatani, Miju-Mishmi, Nocte and Nishi spoken in Arunachal Pradesh, and Bodo from Assam. Read more

    12:17 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Mahatma Gandhi firmly stood for social equality and harmony and translated his vision into action: RSS

    The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS)chief Mohan Bhagwat said that Mahatma Gandhi firmly stood for social equality and harmony and translated his vision into action. "Gandhiji, who believed in the Swa-based reorganisation of Bharat, firmly stood for social equality and harmony and translated his vision into action, had set an example for all through his life. We must perceive, understand and manifest it in our life.-Mohanji Bhagwat," RSS tweeted.

    12:02 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Rahul Gandhi leads Congress 'padyatra' on Mahatma Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary

    Former Congress president Rahul Gandhi on Wednesday led a 'padyatra' here with a large number of party workers following him to Mahatma Gandhi's memorial Rajghat. The 'Gandhi Sandesh Yatra' on Mahatma Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary began from the Delhi Congress office Rajiv Bhavan at Deendayal Upadhyay Marg and headed to Rajghat, about three kilometres away, with enthusiastic party workers waving flags and chanting the slogan 'Mahatma Gandhi Amar Rahein'. Many youth sported Gandhi's trademark spectacles and dhoti and walked with sticks in the march. A tableau of Gandhi's Sabarmati Ashram and his iconic wooden spinning wheel was also part of the march. The march will conclude with an oath to be administered to workers and leaders by party president Sonia Gandhi at Rajghat.

    11:28 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Mahatma Gandhi @ 150: Ram Rajya and how it became the only Hindi film Bapu ever saw

    Today is the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. October 2 also marks 76 years since Vijay Bhatt’s Ram Rajya was released to packed houses all over India. A milestone in my grandfather’s career also goes down in history as the only Hindi film to have been seen by Mahatma Gandhi in his lifetime. Vijay Bhatt first met with Gandhiji in the late 1930s on a trip to Valsad with his friends. When Gandhiji learned that he was a filmmaker, he asked, “Why don’t you make a film on Narsi Mehta?” Narsi Mehta was a poet saint of Gujarat. His bhajan “Vaishnav jan to tene re kahiye je…” was Gandhiji’s favourite.  Read More

    October 2 marks 76 years since Vijay Bhatt’s Ram Rajya was released to packed houses all over India.
    11:21 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    PM Modi, OM Birla, Sonia Gandhi, Rahul, Kejriwal pay floral tributes to Bapu at Parliament

    Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla and other dignitaries pay floral tributes to Mahatma Gandhi on the occasion of his 150th birth anniversary at the Parliament in New Delhi on Wednesday. Congress interim president Sonia Gandhi, Rahul Gandhi and Gulam Nabi Azad also present. (Express photos by Neeraj Priyadarshi)

    10:55 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    See photos | India celebrates Gandhi Jayanti: PM Modi, President Kovind pay tribute to the Mahatma

    It’s the 150th birth anniversary of The Mahatma and celebrations are being held across the country and the world. See pictures here

    PM Modi and Union Minister Hardeep Singh Puri pay homage to to Mahatma Gandhi on 150th birth anniversary at the Rajghat, New Delhi. (Express photo: Tashi Tobgyal)

    Former PM Manmohan Singh pays homage to Mahatma Gandhi. (Express photo: Tashi Tobgyal)

    Peace march on the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatama Gandhi in Ludhiana. (Express photo : Gurmeet Singh)

    Gandhi Ashram in Ahmedabad on the 150th birth anniversary of Bapu. (Express photo Javed Raja)

    Congress interim president Sonia Gandhi pays homage to Mahatma Gandhi at Rajghat. (Express photo: Tashi Tobgyal)

    Aga Khan Palace was lit up on the eve of Gandhi Jayanti after renovation on Tuesday. Mahatma Gandhi, his wife Kasturba Gandhi and his secretary Mahadev Desai stayed at the palace from August 1942 to May 1944 during the launch of Quit India movement. 

    The Sabarmati riverfront was lit up with decorative lighting on the eve of Mahatma Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary which is being celebrated today. (Express photo: Javed Raja)

    10:42 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Gandhi ji's satyagraha movement brought the British to their knees: Amit Shah

    BJP President Amit Shah during 'Gandhi Sankalp Yatra' in Delhi: Gandhi ji's satyagraha movement brought the British to their knees. He showed the path of truth and non-violence to the world.

    10:36 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Several events are taking place across the country on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti

    On the occasion of 150th Gandhi Jayanti, several events are taking place across the country. While Union Sports Minister Kiren Rijiju flagged off 'Fit India Plog run,'- a trash-collecting activity while jogging, at Indira Gandhi stadium where Wrestler Bajrang Punia was also present, 'Swacchhata Abhiyaan (cleanliness drive),' was conducted at Ramghat in Wazirabad under the 'Namami Gange Project,' today. Also, Union Minister Nitin Gadkari launched a special sales campaign of Khadi and Village Industries Commission & launched cow dung soaps and bamboo bottles yesterday, on the eve of #GandhiJayanti.

    Kiren Rijiju flagged off 'Fit India Plog run'. (ANI)
    'Swacchhata Abhiyaan (cleanliness drive),' was conducted at Ramghat in Wazirabad. (ANI)
    Nitin Gadkari launched a special sales campaign of Khadi and Village Industries Commission & launched cow dung soaps and bamboo bottles. (ANI)
    10:24 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Air India pays tribute to Mahatma Gandhi by painting his portrait

    Air India pays tribute to Mahatma Gandhi by painting his portrait on the tail of an Airbus A320 aircraft at Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi.

    ANI photo
    10:09 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Defence Minister Rajnath Singh administers cleanliness oath in Delhi

    Defence Minister Rajnath Singh administered a cleanliness oath to people at an event organised in Delhi Cantonment on  Gandhi Jayanti, today.   

    09:45 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    P Chidambaram pays homage to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary

    Congress leader P Chidambaram tweeted: "I have asked my family to tweet on my behalf the following on October 2, 2019: Today is the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. My salutations and homage to the Great Soul. The evolution and history of homo sapiens until the end of the 19th century was largely a story of enslavement. Might was right and ‘King can do no wrong’. The seeds of democracy flowered only in the 20th century bringing the hope of liberty and equality to hundreds of countries and millions of people. The 21st century has eroded that hope. Democracy is being hollowed out in country after country - Venezuela, Russia, Myanmar, Turkey, Hungary and now even in the United States. Which way will India go? Freedom is a never ending struggle. Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty."

    09:41 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    The many notoriously reticent descendants of the Mahatma

    In the 150th year of Gandhi’s birth, as Mahatma the icon gets pressed into service once again, the burden of legacy sits lightly on Bhattacharjee’s frail shoulders. To her, he is simply Bapu. “When I was in college, nobody made a big deal of my Gandhi connection. Later, when I wondered why, I realised I was only a product of those times. The entire country was involved in the freedom movement and all those girls came from one political flow or the other. It’s not as if I was something special,” says Bhattacharjee, who later married Jyoti Prasad Bhattacharjee, whom she met during her years in Santiniketan. Read More

    Harilal Gandhi’s granddaughter Nilambari Parikh at her Navsari home. (Photos courtesy: Tara Gandhi Bhattacharjee)
    09:36 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    Rahul Gandhi pays tribute to Mahatma Gandhi

    Former Congress president Rahul Gandhi took to Twitter to pay tributes to Mahatma Gandhi. "On his 150th Jayanti, my tributes to Mahatma Gandhi Ji, the “Father of the Nation”, who through his words & deeds, showed us that love for all living beings & non violence is the only way to defeat oppression, bigotry & hatred, " he tweeted.

    09:31 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    By writing him letters, students from a university imagine a Gandhi for the here and now

    “Dear Gandhiji, I (would) like to apologise to you…we have failed you. Violence is all I see when I open my eyes… My soul cries for my brothers and sisters of Kashmir who have suffered ever since the formation of free India… ” reads a letter written to Mahatma Gandhi by a student of the Maharaja Sayajirao University (MSU), Baroda, as part of a contest hosted by the MSU to mark Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary. Titled “Dear Gandhi” and held at the faculty of arts on September 4, the contest saw 100-odd students pour their hearts out to Bapu in inland letters written by hand. Read More

    Letters to Gandhi written by millennials as part of a contest. 
    09:08 (IST)02 Oct 2019
    More than ever we need a Mahatma Gandhi today

    Being Gandhi is an urgent book, not because the anniversary of 150 years of Gandhi is coming up. But because, more than ever, we need Gandhi today. We need his thoughts, his activism, his principles. Most of all, we need his courage to stand up for what he believed. Stand up in the face of criticism and worse. We need Gandhi today because we need to relearn that courage of conviction. Read More

     Gandhi with six-year-old Indira Gandhi during his 21-day fast in Delhi in 1924. (Source: Express Archive)

    gandhi jayanti, gandhi jayanti 2019, gandhi jayanti live, gandhi jayanti news, mahatma gandhi jayanti, gandhi jayanti speech, pm modi, gandhi jayanti news, pm modi live, narendra modi, pm modi speech today, modi speech, gandhi jayanti news, lal bahadur shastri, lal bahadur shastri jayanti, lal bahadur shastri Gandhi Jayanti 2019 Live Updates: Nearly 900 students will share their views on Gandhi's teachings of non-violence at the ashram.

    Gandhi Jayanti 2019 Live Updates:

    Jitu Vaghani said that PM Modi will attend the state-level Navratri festival organised at the GMDC ground in the city. He will spend time at the garba ground before leaving for Delhi. Those visiting Gujarat to attend the October 2 function at Sabarmati Riverfront will be taken to places associated with Gandhi, such as the memorial associated with the historic salt march which was led by him in 1930, and the Mahatma Mandir in Gandhinagar.

    Also Read | The deep ties between Gandhi and the American civil rights movement | Bapu’s Life, His Message | Leo Tolstoy to Dada Abdulla, the international influences on the Mahatma

    A mega cleanliness drive has been organsied by the administration of Navsari district at the Dandi beach. Gandhi made salt at Dandi as part of the civil disobedience movement known as 'Salt Satyagrah'.

    Navsari collector Adra Agarwal said that around 1500 people are likely to participate in the cleanliness drive to clean the Dandi beach.

    Also Read | Why Mahatma Gandhi was India’s first conceptual artist | What it means when you see Mahatma Gandhi in a cartoon | More than ever we need a Mahatma Gandhi today

    Nearly 900 students will share their views on Gandhi's teachings of non-violence at the ashram. The ashram trust said that these children are among the 30,000 students from government primary schools who are learning lessons in non-violence by facilitators at the ashram.

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