2014-2018: Poles apart in ideology, PDP and BJP allied to form a government, first with Mufti Mohd Sayeed as CM, who was succeeded by his daughter Mehbooba following his death. The killing of militant Burhan Wani led to unrest in the Valley, the alliance strained, and Mehbooba eventually resigned in 2018.
2004-2014: The Manmohan Singh years, marked by the appointment of interlocutors for J&K in 2010 (Dilip Padgaonkar, M M Ansari, Radha Kumar); a meeting between the PM and Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf in New York in 2006; and unrest in 2008 over transfer of land to the Amarnath Shrine Board.
April 2003: PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee made his frequently quoted speech in Lok Sabha, after a visit to J&K. “I stressed that the gun can solve no problem; brotherhood can. Issues can be resolved if we move forward guided by the three principles of Insaniyat, Jamhooriyat and Kashmiriyat.”
1999: Kargil War, May to July. Pakistani troops and militants had infiltrated through the Line of Control, before India recaptured its positions. It followed the wars of 1947, 1965 and 1971 between the two countries, of which only 1971 was not over Kashmir.
1990: A J&K 2008 police report states that 1989 onwards, militants killed 209 Kashmiri Pandits, 109 in 1990 alone. This was the year leading to the exodus of Kashmiri Pandits. Schofield’s book puts the number of Hindus who left the Valley at 1.4 lakh in the beginning of March.
January 1990: New Delhi reappointed former Governor Jagmohan. Following raids on people’s houses, a crowd protested at Srinagar’s Gawakadal Bridge. CRPF troops fired on unarmed protesters. Over 100 died, Schofield writes. The state came under Governor’s Rule in February.
1989: That year marked the real beginning of insurgency, writes historian Victoria Schofield (Kashmir in Conflict). Strikes were frequent, many militant groups emerged. Days after Mufti Mohd Sayeed had been appointed Union Home Minister, his daughter Rubaiya was kidnapped.
March 23, 1987: An election widely seen as rigged, and seen as a turning point leading to militancy. Dismissed as CM in 1984 and replaced with his brother-in-law (with Congress support), Farooq Abdullah was reinstalled after the 1987 polls, again with Congress support.
February 24, 1975: Indira Gandhi-Sheikh Abdullah Accord. “The State of Jammu and Kashmir which is a constituent unit of the Union of India, shall, in its relation with the Union, continue to be governed by Article 370 of the Constitution of India,” it stated.
May 14, 1954: Presidential Order introduced Article 35A, which protected laws passed by the state legislature regarding Permanent Residents from any challenge on the ground that they were in violation of the Fundamental Rights. The PM of J&K became Chief Minister.
August 9, 1953: Sheikh Abdullah, Prime Minister of J&K, arrested, his government dismissed. The arrest was ordered by PM Jawaharlal Nehru and the charge slapped on him was that he had lost the confidence of the cabinet. He was jailed for 11 years; the Congress later patched up with him.
January 26, 1950: Indian Constitution comes into effect. Provisions (other than Article 1 and Article 370) could apply to J&K “subject to such exceptions and modifications as the President may by order specify”, with concurrence of the state government and endorsement of the J&K Constituent Assembly.
October 26, 1947: Hari Singh eventually signed Instrument of Accession with India. The decision was forced on him by the invasion of tribesmen from the Northwest Frontier Province, supported by Pakistan. The Maharaja sought military help from India, which sought accession in return.
August 15, 1947: The Indian Independence Act, 1947, divided British India into India and Pakistan. The princely states were given three options – to remain independent, or join Dominion of India or Dominion of Pakistan. Jammu & Kashmir’s Maharaja Hari Singh opted to remain independent.
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