In its report released at the end of a meeting in Seoul, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has made projections for how the rise in global average temperatures can be restricted within 1.5°C of pre-industrial times. As reported in The Indian Express Monday, it has presented four possible pathways. As shown in the graphs, they involve Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) in varying amounts. The pathways account separately for contributions of fossil fuel and industry, Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS), and removals in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU).
In each pathway, the global average temperature is projected to overshoot the 1.5°C target by some amount before returning to that level by the end of this century. Each looks at a different scenario of the global energy demand:
P1: A scenario in which social, business, and technological innovations result in lower energy demand up to 2050 while living standards rise, especially in the global South. A down-sized energy system enables rapid decarbonisation of energy supply. Afforestation is the only CDR option considered; neither fossil fuels with CCS nor BECCS are used.
P2: A scenario with a broad focus on sustainability including energy intensity, human development, economic convergence and international cooperation, as well as shifts towards sustainable and healthy consumption patterns, low-carbon technology innovation, and well-managed land systems with limited societal acceptability for BECCS.
P3: A middle-of-the-road scenario in which societal as well as technological development follows historical patterns. Emissions reductions are mainly achieved by changing the way in which energy and products are produced, and to a lesser degree by reductions in demand.
P4: A resource and energy-intensive scenario in which economic growth and globalization lead to widespread adoption of greenhouse-gas intensive lifestyles, including high demand for transportation fuels and livestock products. Emissions reductions are mainly achieved through technological means, making strong use of CDR through the deployment of BECCS.
This Word Means: Public charge
A concept US proposes to redefine, making it tougher for immigrants to enter country or get green cards
The US has proposed a new regulation which, if enforced, would make it more difficult for immigrants to enter the county or receive green cards, if they are deemed likely to use public benefits like food stamps or Medicaid. The key aspect is how the draft looks at “public charge”. The term refers to an individual who is likely to become primarily dependent on the government for subsistence. Under Section 212(a)(4) of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, an individual seeking admission to the US, or seeking to adjust status to that of an individual lawfully admitted for permanent residence (green card), is inadmissible if the individual, “at the time of application for admission or adjustment of status, is likely at any time to become a public charge”.
According to the US Citizenship and Immigration Services website, at present a number of no-cash benefits are generally not taken into account for a public charge determination. These include Medicaid, Children’s Health Insurance Program, and nutrition programmes including food stamps. In a statement, the Department of Homeland Security said it now proposes to include under “public charge” benefits such as Medicaid (with limited exceptions), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (food stamps), and public housing.
In an explainer, the news website Vox says, “It (the proposed new rule) would give enormous discretion to US Citizenship and Immigration Services (UCIS) officers to reject an immigrant’s application for admission, or for a green card, because the officer feels the immigrant doesn’t make enough money to support a large family or doesn’t have the resources to provide health care for a preexisting condition.”