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Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Explained: The importance of December 27 for India’s National Anthem

On December 27, 1911, the National Anthem was first sung at the Calcutta session of the Congress. ‘Jana Gana Mana’ was adopted as the country’s National Anthem by the Constituent Assembly of India on January 24, 1950, the last day of its last session.

, Edited by Explained Desk | New Delhi | Published: December 27, 2019 7:43:04 pm
Indian national anthem, Jana gana mana, national anthem written by Tagore, importance of India's national anthem, jana gana mana full song, jana gana mana lyrics, indian express A little girl holding India’s national flag on India’s Independence Day. (File Photo) ‘Jana Gana Mana’ was adopted as the country’s National Anthem by the Constituent Assembly of India on January 24, 1950, the last day of its last session.

On December 27, 1911, the National Anthem was first sung at the Calcutta session of the Congress.

‘Jana Gana Mana’ is the first stanza of the Bengali hymn ‘Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata’, written by Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore. A slightly varied version of the song was adopted by Subhash Chandra Bose’s Indian National Army in 1941 as the national anthem, called ‘Shubh Sukh Chain’, which also became popular in India since. On August 15, 1947, after India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru unfurled the Tricolour on the ramparts of the Red Fort and addressed the nation, Capt Thakuri of the INA, who had given music to the ‘Subh Sukh Chain’ version, was invited to play with members of his orchestra group.

‘Jana Gana Mana’ was adopted as the country’s National Anthem by the Constituent Assembly of India on January 24, 1950, the last day of its last session. Dr Rajendra Prasad, the President of the Assembly, and later the President of India for two full terms, had on that day also declared ‘Vande Mataram’ as the National Song.

Reverence to the National Anthem is a Fundamental duty in India. According to Article 51A (a) of the Constitution: “It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem”.

Tagore’s compositions also went on to become the national anthem of Bangladesh. ‘Amar Sonar Bangla’, the Bangladeshi anthem, was written to protest against the partition of Bengal by the British in 1905. Sri Lanka’s “Sri Lanka Matha”, written by Ananda Samarakoon, was also influenced by Tagore. Some believe that Tagore wrote it in full.

“South Asia is one of the few clusters of countries where all the national anthems are non-militaristic. It is no accident that three of these anthems — India’s, Bangladesh’s and Sri Lanka’s — are written by the same poet, Rabindranath Tagore,” according to a 2015 column in The Indian Express by journalist Rajni Bakshi. Tagore denounced nationalism, and has been described as a pacifist, humanist, and universalist.

Here is the full version of his hymn

Jōno gōno mōno odhinayōko jōyo he
Bharōto bhagyo bidhata!
Pōnjab Šindhu Gujraṯ Mōraṯha
Drabiṟo Utkōlo Bōngo
Bindhyo Himachōlo Jomuna Gōnga
Uchchhōlo jōlodhitōrongo
Tōbo shubho name jage,
Tōbo shubho ashisho mage,
Gahe tōbo jōyo gatha.
Jōno gōno mōngolodayōko jōyo he
Bharōto bhagyo bidhata!
Jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo jōyo jōyo jōyo he.

Ōhorōho tōbo aobhano procharito,
Shuni tōbo udaro bani;
Hindu Bouddho Shikh Joino Parošik
Musolmano Khrishṯani
Purōbo poshchimo aše,
Tōbo šinghašōno pashe,
Premoharo hoy gãtha.
Jōno gōno oikyo-bidhayōko jōyo he
Bharōto bhagyo bidhata!
Jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo jōyo jōyo jōyo he.

Pōtono obhyudhōyo bondhuro pōntha,
Jugo jugo dhabito jatri.
He chirošarothi, tōbo rōthochokre
Mukhoritho pōtho dinoratri.
Daruno biplōbo majhe,
Tōbo shōnkhodhoni baje
Šōnkoṯo duːkho trata.
Jōno gōno pōthoporichayōko jōyo he
Bharōto bhagyo bidhata!
Jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo jōyo jōyo jōyo he.

Ghōro timiro ghōno nibiro nishithe
Pirito murchhito deshe
Jagrōto chhilo tōbo obichōlo mōngolo
Nōtonōyone ōnimeshe.
Duːšopone atōnke
Rōkkha korile ōnke
Snehomoyi tumi mata.
Jōno gōno duːkhotrayōko jōyo he
Bharōto bhagyo bidhata!
Jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo jōyo jōyo jōyo he.

Ratri probhatilo, udilo robichchhobi
Purbo udōyo giri bhale
Gahe bihōngōmo, punyo šomirōno
Nōbo jibōnorōšo dhale.
Tōbo korunaruno rage
Nidrito bharōto jage
Tōbo chōrone nōto matha.
Jōyo jōyo jōyo he jōyo rajeshwōro
Bharōto bhagyo bidhata!
Jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo he, jōyo jōyo jōyo jōyo he.

English translation

Oh! the ruler of the minds of people, Victory be to You,
Dispenser of the destiny of India!
Punjab, Indus, Gujarat, Marhatta (Marathi heartland),
Dravida (South India), Orissa and Bengal,
The Vindhyas, the Himalayas, the Jumna and the Ganges,
And the oceans with foaming waves all around.
Wake up listening to Your auspicious name,
Ask for Your auspicious blessings,
And sing to Your glorious victory.
Oh! You who impart well being to the people,
Victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

Your call is announced continuously,
We heed Your gracious call
The Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains,
Parsis, Muslims and Christians,
The East and the West come together,
To the side of Your throne
And weave the garland of love.
Oh! You who bring in the unity of the people!
Victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

The way of life is somber as it moves through ups and downs,
But we, the pilgrims, have followed it through ages.
Oh! Eternal Charioteer, the wheels of your chariot
Echo day and night in the path
In the midst of fierce revolution,
Your conch shell sounds.
You save us from fear and misery.
Oh! You who guide the people through torturous path,
Victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

During the bleakest of nights,
When the whole country was sick and in swoon
Wakeful remained Your incessant blessings,
Through Your lowered but wink-less eyes
Through nightmares and fears,
You protected us on Your lap,
Oh Loving Mother!
Oh! You who have removed the misery of the people,
Victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

The night is over, and the Sun has risen
over the hills of the eastern horizon.
The birds are singing, and a gentle auspicious breeze
Is pouring the elixir of new life.
By the halo of Your compassion,
India that was asleep is now waking
On your feet we now lay our heads
Oh! Victory, victory, victory to you, the Supreme King,
Victory be to You, dispenser of the destiny of India!
Victory, victory, victory to You!

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