Maternal Mortality Ratio of India has declined from 167 per 100,000 live births in 2011-2013 to 130 per 100,000 live births in 2014-2016, according to a special bulletin from the Sample Registration System released Wednesday.
The decline has been most significant in Empowered Action Group (EAG) states — Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand — and Assam, from 246 to 188. Among the southern states, the decline has been from 93 to 77 and in the other states from 115 to 93.
Maternal mortality is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.
Complications during pregnancy and childbirth are a leading cause of death and disability among women of reproductive age in developing countries.
The maternal mortality ratio represents the risk associated with each pregnancy, i.e., the obstetric risk. —Abantika Ghosh
Fact Check, Ground reality: Foreign portfolio investment outflow mostly from debt market
In pulling out a net Rs 32,015 crore from Indian markets between January and May 2018 (as reported in The Indian Express Wednesday), foreign portfolio investors have shown a dichotomy in the way they have treated the debt and equity markets.
On the one hand, they have pulled out investments worth Rs 30,464 crore from the Indian debt market following a rise in yields in the US and concerns over impact of high crude oil prices on the Indian economy and currency.
On the other hand, the FPIs pulled out only Rs 1,599 crore from Indian equities. Experts say equity investments are more long-term in nature and the fact that FPIs are staying put despite the rise in crude prices and volatility in rupee indicates that they remain optimistic about equity returns.
While the total FPI exposure in the Indian debt market is Rs 3,89,709 crore, that in equities is over twice as much, at Rs 8,74,033 crore. —Sandeep Singh
Tip for Reading List: How smoking affects unborn babies
Children exposed to tobacco smoke before and after birth may be at the risk of hearing impairment, a new study has found. Published in Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, the study by researchers of Kyoto University looked at 50,734 children aged 3 years. Compared with children not exposed to tobacco smoke prenatally and at 4 months, children exposed to only maternal past-smoking during pregnancy had a 26% increased relative risk of hearing impairment; children exposed to only second-hand smoke at 4 months had a 30% increased relative risk. Children exposed to only smoking during pregnancy had a 68% increased relative risk; those exposed to smoking during pregnancy and second-hand smoke at 4 months had a 2.4 times increased risk. — PTI