At Rs 1.03 lakh, Maharashtra has the second highest per capita income as compared to other major states in the country, according to the latest Economic Survey. However, on the Human Development Index (HDI), it ranks way below states like Kerala and Punjab that have a much lower per capita income.
Per capita income is one of the yardsticks for calculating the HDI, the other two being health and education. Maharashtra holds an HDI of 0.57. Kerala and Punjab with a lower per capita income of Rs 88,527 and Rs 86,106, respectively, have a much higher HDI at 0.79 and 0.60, respectively. Tamil Nadu, which has a lower per capita income of Rs 98,550, flaunts an HDI on par with that of Maharashtra.
A comparison of the per capital income at current prices for a total of 11 major states shows Maharashtra comes second only to Haryana on the income scale. The list of the major states include Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
If smaller states such as Delhi and Goa, which have a per capita income higher than Maharashtra, are taken into account, the HDI rank of Maharashtra goes down further to the fifth position. Delhi has a per capita income of Rs 1.92 lakh with the country’s second highest HDI of 0.75, while Goa has an income of Rs 1.61 lakh and an equally high HDI of 0.61.
Within Maharashtra, the country’s financial capital of Mumbai has the highest per capital income at Rs 1.67 lakh.
However, Mumbai also has the worst sex ratio in the state. According to the 2011 census, Mumbai city has only 832 females per 1,000 males and Mumbai suburbs have a sex ratio of 860, both way below the state’s average sex ratio of 929.
Similarly, of the 35 districts, Mumbai city also has the maximum number of homeless population with 1.2 of its total population surviving without a roof over their heads as compared to a state average of 0.2 per cent. Thane, with the second highest per capita income of Rs 1.57 lakh, is also the second worst performer after Mumbai on the sex ratio front with only 886 females for every 1,000 males. Overall, both the sex ratio and the child sex ratio (0 to 6 years) of Maharashtra fall way below the national average.
The state’s most backward districts such as Nandurbar in North Maharashtra, the backward districts of Marathwada and the Naxal-hit districts on the eastern end have each recorded less than a third of the per capita income of their urban counterparts such as Mumbai, Thane and Pune.