Mumbai, the sprawling megapolis spread over 600 sq km, has seen its population grow at a rate which is twice that of Maharashtra’s and 2.5 times that of the country in the past 100 years.
Mumbai’s population has grown by a whopping 983 per cent from 11.48 lakh in 1911 to 1.24 crore in 2011. Maharashtra has meanwhile grown by 423 per cent from 2.14 crore in 1911 to 11.23 crore in 2011. The country as a whole has had a relatively staid growth of 380 per cent in its population from 25.20 crore in 1911 to 121.08 crore in 2011.
Interestingly, the island city of Mumbai which was the more populous section in 1911 has seen its population increase only by 245 per cent from 8.93 lakh to 30.85 lakh. In comparison Mumbai’s suburbs which had a population of only 2.5 lakh in 2011 have grown by a humungous 3555 per cent to 93.56 lakhs.
The cause of such a high growth rate is said to be because of the long history of migration. Mumbai has been at the vanguard of growth of capitalism and its resultant economical and social changes. Census figures point out that over 50 per cent of migration into the state was due to the availability of employment and business opportunitie at large.
As per Census figures between 1991 and 2001, migrants in Mumbai constituted close to 15 per cent of its population. The area of Mumbai and its adjoining areas like Thane, Navi Mumbai are supposed to have attracted close to 24.89 lakh in migrants. Out of these, over 15 lakh were from outside the state while over 9 lakh were from within the state.
“The state has the second largest per capita net state domestic product in the country, and the growth in the state has been urban-centric and non-agricultural, having visible consequences of pockets of urban affluence with shades of poverty and a continuing draw of migrants,” a recently issued Maharashtra Human Development Index Report says.