People in Delhi earn nearly three times more than the average Indian, and the state’s fiscal deficit — the government’s total expenditure exceeding the revenue that it generates, minus money from borrowings — is at a negligible half per cent. This and more positive news on population below poverty line, gender ratio and sharp fall in the rate of population increase comes in the Economic Survey of Delhi 2014-15 tabled in the Assembly on Wednesday.
The survey shows that per capita income jumped an impressive 14 per cent to Rs 2.41 lakh in the last fiscal year. It was Rs 2.12 lakh in 2012-13, when the national per capita income stood at Rs 87,748.
The government’s earnings, or the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP), too rose sharply to over Rs 4.51 lakh crore. This is 15.35 per cent higher than the previous fiscal. There are fewer people below the poverty line — 16.96 lakh in 2011-12, compared with 23.3 lakhs in 2009-10. The city’s total population as of March 2011 is just over 1.67 crore. Almost all of people have an electricity connection and 99 per cent of households have access to sanitation facilities.
Rapid urbanisation means Delhi’s air quality is poorer. Levels of particulate matter 10, which stood at 170 in 2003, has jumped to 318 in 2014. There has been a rapid increase in the number of vehicles, with taxis accounting for most new additions — from 8,545 in 1999-2000 to 79,606 in 2014-15. This has automatically enhanced the pollution levels of Delhi.
Urbanisation has also eaten fast into rural areas, reduced to 369.35 sq km in 2011 from 558.32 sq km a decade ago. The number of villages has declined from 165 in 2001 to 112 in 2011. The gross cropped area has accordingly fallen from 52,816 hectares in 2000-01 to 34,312 in the last fiscal.
With more growth has come bigger demand for power. Delhi consumed 23,537 million units in 2005-06. Now it used 37,484 million units, a rise of two-thirds. Peak demand has increased from 3,626 MW in 2005-06 to 5,925 MW in 2014-15.
Basic facilities to every household have also improved. According to the 2011 Census, 81 per cent of total households had piped water supply. The total number of water connections provided by the Delhi Jal Board has increased from 17.85 lakh in 2009-10 to 20.65 lakh in 2013-14.
Judging Delhi on social and demographic profile, it has improved a bit but is still behind most of the northern Indian states.
How Delhi is doing (Source: The Economic Survey of Delhi 2014-15)
Total revenue collection of the government for 2014-15 was Rs 29,584.49 crore compared to Rs 27,980.69 crore in 2013-14. Delhi has consistently maintained surplus revenue, which was Rs 6,079.53 crore in 2014-15 compared to Rs 5,615.37 crore in 2013-14.
Particulate Matter (PM) 10 levels stood at 192 in 2002, decreased to 170 in 2003 and, in 2014, jumped to 318.
The per capita expenditure on education has been increased from Rs 2,542 in 2010-11 to Rs 3,852 in 2014-15. The total number of schools increased from 5,043 in 2009-10 to 5,798 in 2014-15. Even the number of students enrolled in schools increased from 37.38 lakh in 2009-10 to 44.13 lakh in 2014-15. About 25,000 students got admitted under the EWS quota.
Literacy rate among the Scheduled Caste population has registered a rise. From 20.86% in 1961 to 70.85% in 2001 and 78.89% in 2011. Although the 2011 figure is below Delhi’s overall literacy rate of 86.20%, it remained above the national average of 63.07%. There are 9.01 lakh SCs working — 6.14% of the total workforce.
The number of hospital beds have increased to 48,096 in 2014 from 32,941 in 2004, but bed-to-population ratio stands at 2.71 (beds per 1,000 people). It was 2.5 in 2013-14. Investment in the health sector has increased from Rs 469.83 cr in 2004-05 to Rs 1,990 cr.
The total number of vehicles registered in Delhi has increased from 31.64 lakh in 1999-2000 to 88.27 lakh in 2014-15. The highest increase is in taxis, from 8,545 in 1999-2000 to 79,606 in 2014-15.
City richer by 14% per capita (All India average: Rs 87,748)
2012-13: Rs 2.12 lakh
2014-15: Rs 2.41 lakh
Gross domestic state product
Rs 4.51 lakh crore (Growth of 15.35% over 2013-14 at current prices)
Rs 2,21.25 crore | 0.049% of GSDP | 2.35% in 2013-14
Rs 6,079.53 crore (Rs 5,615.37 crore in 2013-14)