Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were the most common etiological factor for facial trauma injuries seen at the Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) from 2009 to 2013, reveals a study. The RTAs accounted for 78.97% of facial injuries, followed by falls (13.85%).
The study, “Retrospective Analysis of Etiology, Incidence and Management of Facial Trauma Over 5 Years in North India: A Clinical Audit”, was published in the recent edition of the Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, Education and Research.
The study examined the records of 195 patients with facial fractures in the tertiary care centre (PGI) in north India, from 2009 to 2013. It reviewed the mechanism of injury, age and sex of the patient, the type of injury and the treatment provided.
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It was found that RTA was the most common etiological factor, accounting for 154 injuries (78.97%). It was followed by falls (27 injuries, 13.85%).
While 77.44 % (191) patients reported within first three days of injury, the rest (22.56%) reported after more than three days of the trauma. During the study, it was also found that fractures of mandible were more commonly observed.
Explaining the kind of injuries, the study mentioned, “Sixty-eight patients (34.87%) had more than one type of facial fracture, with mandibular fractures (155 fractures, 56.57%) being more common than the midface fractures (114 fractures, 41.61%).”
Further, the majority of the injured persons were found to be males. The male to female proportion was about 6:1, which means that out of 195 injured persons, 167 were men and 28 women.
“Males are more prone to trauma due to their outdoor activities, aggressive driving and alcoholism,” mentions the study.
The youngest patient was one-year-old, whereas the oldest was 86 years of age. The average age was 31.6 years.
“The most commonly involved age group was 20 to 40 years (99 patients, 50.77%), followed by 40 to 60 years (44 patients, 22.56%),” the study mentions.
The researchers conclude, “In handling trauma patients, the maxillofacial surgeon should utilise his knowledge to the best possible level as any injury to this region has a direct impact on the psyche as well as the general well-being of the patient.”