Euro zone consumer prices fell by more than expected in December because of much cheaper energy, a first estimate by the European statistics office showed in data that is likely to trigger the European Central Bank’s government bond buying programme.
Eurostat said inflation in the 18 countries using the euro in December was -0.2 per cent year-on-year, down from 0.3 per cent year-on-year in November. The last time euro zone inflation was negative was in October 2009, when it was -0.1 per cent.
Economists polled by Reuters had expected a -0.1 per cent year-on-year fall in prices. The ECB wants to keep inflation below but close to 2 per cent over the medium term.
Eurostat said that core inflation, which excludes the volatile energy and unprocessed food prices, was stable at 0.7 per cent year-on-year in December — the same level as in November and October.
But energy prices plunged 6.3 per cent year-on-year last month and unprocessed food was 1.0 per cent cheaper, pulling down the overall index despite a 1.2 per cent rise in the cost of services.
The ECB is concerned that a prolonged period of very low inflation could change inflation expectations of consumers and make them hold back their purchases in the hope of even lower prices, triggering deflation.
Because the ECB’s interest rates are already at rock bottom, the bank is preparing a program of printing money to buy government bonds on the secondary market to inject even more cash into the economy, boost demand and make prices rise faster.