H-4 visas are issued by the US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to immediate family members (spouse and children under 21 years of age) of the holders of H-1B visa, the most sought-after among Indian IT professionals.
The surge in UPI transactions has taken place since 2016 when the interface was set up by an umbrella organization of Indian banks. Mastercard, in contrast, has built up its business in India over three decades.
The action against Missal underscores China's extreme sensitivity to foreign attention to the crackdown, word of which has rarely appeared in China's entirely state-controlled media and on the heavily policed Chinese internet.
Every spike in tension between India and Pakistan puts visas just a little further out of reach for people on the two sides. Still, joined by death, birth or marriage, 70 years after Partition, they hope and return.
Last week, the Rajasthan Anti-Corruption Bureau arrested Pankaj Mishra, a senior secretariat assistant in the Foreigners Division of the Home Ministry, for allegedly demanding and accepting bribe from Pakistani immigrants applying for Indian citizenship.