Former army chief Abdel Fattah al-Sisi was sworn in as president of Egypt on Sunday in a ceremony with low-key attendance by Western allies concerned by the country’s crackdown on dissent since he ousted Islamist leader Mohamed Mursi last year.
Last month’s presidential election, which officials said Sisi won with 97 percent of the vote, followed three years of upheaval since a popular uprising ended 30 years of rule by former air force commander Hosni Mubarak.
Before a panel of judges at the Supreme Constitutional Court, Sisi swore to protect Egypt’s republican system, unity law and the interests of its people.
Western countries, who hoped the overthrow of Mubarak in 2011 would usher in a new era of democracy, have watched Egypt’s political transition stumble.
Mursi’s year in power was tarnished by accusations that he usurped power, imposed the Brotherhood’s views on Islam and mismanaged the economy, allegations he denied.
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After Sisi deposed him and became Egypt’s de facto ruler, security forces mounted one of the toughest crackdowns on the Brotherhood in its 86-year history. Hundreds were killed in street protests and thousands of others jailed.
Secular activists were eventually thrown in jail, even those who supported Mursi’s fall, because they violated a new law that severely restricts protests.
Here are some key events from more than three years of turmoil and transition in Egypt:
Feb. 11, 2011: Autocrat Hosni Mubarak steps down after 18 days of nationwide protests against his nearly 30-year rule. The military takes over, dissolving parliament and suspending the constitution after the uprising leaves hundreds of protesters dead in clashes with security forces.
Nov. 28, 2011 – Feb. 15, 2012: The Muslim Brotherhood wins nearly half the seats in multi-stage elections for the first post-Mubarak parliament, while ultraconservative Salafi Islamists take another quarter. The remainder goes to liberal, independent and secular politicians.
June 18, 2012: The Muslim Brotherhood’s candidate Mohammed Morsi defeats Ahmed Shafiq, Mubarak’s last prime minister, with 51.7 percent of the vote in a runoff, taking office on June 30 as Egypt’s first freely elected president.
Aug. 12, 2012: Morsi removes the defense minister and military chief, Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi, and replaces him with Lt. Gen. Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi.
Nov. 22, 2012: Morsi unilaterally decrees greater powers for himself, giving his decisions immunity from judicial review and barring the courts from dissolving a panel charged with drafting a new constitution. The move sparks days of protests.
Dec. 15 – Dec. 22, 2012: Egyptians approve a constitution drafted and hastily passed by Islamists amid protests and walkouts by other groups, with 63.8 percent voting in favor but a low turnout of 32.9 percent.
March 12, 2013: Egypt rejects an offer of a $750 million rescue loan from the International Monetary Fund. In the coming months, fuel and electricity shortages stoke discontent, while a campaign called Tamarod, or “Rebel,” gathers signatures calling for Morsi’s removal and early presidential elections.
June 30, 2013: On Morsi’s first anniversary in office, millions of Egyptians begin days of massive demonstrations demanding his resignation. The military gives him 48 hours to reach an agreement with his opponents, but he vows to remain in office.
July 3, 2013: El-Sissi announces Morsi’s removal, installing Constitutional Court Chief Justice Adly Mansour as interim president.
July 8, 2013: Egyptian soldiers fire on Morsi supporters protesting outside a military facility in Cairo, killing over 50. Each side blames the other for the violence. Mansour sets a timeline for amending the constitution and electing a new president and parliament by mid-February. The Brotherhood boycotts the process.
Aug. 14, 2013: More than 600 people, mostly Morsi supporters, are killed when police clear two pro-Morsi sit-ins in Cairo. Islamists retaliate by torching government buildings, churches and police stations. Hundreds more die in subsequent violence.
Aug. 19, 2013: Suspected Islamic militants kill 25 policemen in the Sinai Peninsula. Militant attacks escalate in Sinai over the following months, with shootings, bombings and suicide attacks against security officials and troops.
Sept. 23, 2013: An Egyptian court orders the Brotherhood banned and its assets confiscated.
Oct. 9, 2013: The U.S. suspends delivery of tanks, helicopters and fighter jets to Egypt in a show of disapproval over the anti-Brotherhood crackdown.
Nov. 4, 2013: Morsi appears for the first time since his ouster at the opening of his trial on charges of inciting violence, the first of several court cases against him. Some charges against him carry the death penalty.
Dec. 24, 2013: A car bomb rips through a security headquarters in the Nile Delta city of Mansoura, killing 16 people, almost all policemen, in the deadliest attack since Morsi’s ouster. The Sinai-based militant group Ansar Beit al-Maqdis claims responsibility.
Dec. 25, 2013: The government designates the Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist organization.
Jan. 14, 2014: Egyptians vote in favor of amendments to the constitution adopted under Morsi. The referendum sees 98.1 percent of voters approve the measure. Turnout is less than 39 percent.
Jan. 25: Clashes between security forces and protesters on the third anniversary of the 2011 uprising kill least 49 people.
March 24: An Egyptian court sentences to death nearly 530 suspected Morsi supporters over a deadly attack on a police station, capping a swift, two-day mass trial in which defense attorneys were not allowed to present their case. The death sentences are reduced to 37 after review.
March 26: Ending months of anticipation, el-Sissi announces that he has resigned from the military and will run for president.
April 28: An Egyptian court sentences to death the Muslim Brotherhood’s spiritual leader and 682 other people over violence and the killing of policemen. The verdict, which can be appealed, sparks an international outcry.
May 3: A three-week presidential campaign period begins. El-Sissi doesn’t appear in public rallies, instead holding meetings and giving pre-recorded television interviews. His rival, leftist politician Hamdeen Sabahi, rallies around Egypt and has support from some youth groups.
May 26 – 28: Egyptians vote in a presidential election, with el-Sissi widely expected to win by a landslide.
June 3: Egypt’s Election Commission officially announces that el-Sissi has won the presidential elections with a landslide victory 96.9 percent of the vote. His sole rival, leftist politician Hamdeen Sabahi, receives 775,000 votes, fewer than the 1.4 million invalid ballots cast in the three-day election. Turnout was put at 47.45 percent.
June 8: El-Sissi is sworn in for a four-year term.