Forty Years Ago: Spacecraft on Venus

The descent vehicle of the station soft-landed on the surface of the planet.

Published:October 23, 2015 12:00 am
Soviet spacecraft, Venus, Arnold Toynbee, Mahatma Gandhi assassination, the indian express The Indian Express as on 23 October, forty years ago

An unmanned Soviet spacecraft landed on Venus after a five-month journey. Soviet news agency Tass reported that the interplanetary automatic system, Venera-9, went into orbit around the planet to become the first artificial satellite of Venus. Simultaneously, the descent vehicle of the station soft-landed on the surface of the planet. Fifteen minutes later, the first photographs of Venus’s landscape were received on Earth. Venera-9 was launched on June 8 and a sister craft, six days later. The desecent module of the second space planetship was also expected to attempt a soft-landing on Venus, where surface temperature vary from 500 to 600 degrees centigrade, Soviet scientists said. Venera-9 covered a distance of more than 300 million km in 136 flight days.

Toynbee dead

Arnold Toynbee, the eminent British historian and a strong advocate of world government, died in York, England. He was 86. Toynbee died in a private nursing home, where he had been since suffering a stroke 14 months ago. He established his reputation with his 13-volume work, A Study of History, in which he covered the full sweep of history, trying to uncover its anatomy, as he called it, like an analyst in a laboratory, and attempting to trace the pattern of the rise and fall of civilisation.

Gandhi murder case

The Mahatma Gandhi murder case was reopened in a Pune court when a judicial magistrate heard charges framed against
V.G. Ketkar, the then editor of Kesari, for not informing the police about the plan to assassinate Gandhi. The Maharashtra government, which launched the prosecution, alleged that the accused came to know between October 1947 and January 1948 of the conspiracy planned by Nathuram Godse, Gopal Godse, N.D. Apte, V.R. Karkare and Madanlal Pahwa to murder Gandhi.

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