It is not about size, scope or ideology. Rather, it is about getting things done.
Indian scholarship is doubly bereaved, for it has lost a fine teacher and a good man.
Bipan Chandra’s life celebrated the virtues of revisionism.
Chandra was a passionate historian, but he never let political affiliation get in the way of personal and professional ties.
Analyse the acquittals under the anti-dowry Section 498A and understand the logic behind the law.
Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code was introduced in 1983, at a time when it became clear that the Dowry Prohibition Act 1961 had failed not only to prevent dowry but also to stop the violence associated with the institution. Cruelty by a husband or his relatives was made an offence punishable with imprisonment for a period of up to three years and made cognisable. Ordinarily, offences punishable with imprisonment of less than seven years are non-cognisable but if the legislature feels that such an offence is a social evil, it is made cognisable. Offences against women fall into this category.
Outraging the modesty of a woman, using obscene words and gestures and now, after 2013, voyeurism, stalking, acid attacks and sexual harassment are all punishable with less than seven years, but cognisable.
Cruelty is defined as wilful conduct likely to drive a woman to commit suicide or cause grave harm or injury to her life or health, mental or physical. It includes harassment of a woman to coerce her or her relatives to meet an unlawful demand.
It is obvious that the threshold of behaviour required to constitute cruelty is high and so there is an inbuilt safeguard in the section itself for invoking it. What is noteworthy is that the offence is not confined to the giving and taking of dowry, but extends to all conduct that causes mental or physical injury of a high order to the woman by her husband. The word “harassment” itself refers to continuous conduct that causes mental anguish to the woman.
To qualify as cruelty, the conduct must be of a grave nature, but to place it so high as to expect police intervention only when there is an actual attempt at suicide by the woman would be to defeat the purpose of the section. Hence, the section is and must be invoked when women are oppressed in the matrimonial home. Denial of food, locking her up and preventing communication with the outside world and repeated threats to drive her out of the matrimonial home all qualify as mental cruelty.
In 1986, the IPC was again amended to introduce Section 304B, which said that if the death of a married woman occurs in unnatural circumstances within seven years of the marriage, and it is shown that just before her death, she was treated with cruelty in relation to a demand for dowry, it shall be presumed that her husband or relatives caused the death. We must appreciate that the two sections are part of a composite scheme — one is invoked before the woman dies and is preventive in nature, and the other after she is dead. Surely, the purpose of law must be to keep the woman alive.
If Section 498A were properly invoked, we would not see the number of dowry deaths that we continue to see today. Our law reports are full of cases of husbands and their family continued…