Why the BJP must fear its own fringe

Allowing the worst of the party to drive the agenda may be strategic, but it is a dangerous game to play

Written by Abhijit V. Banerjee | Updated: May 26, 2017 12:13 am
BJP, narendra Modi, Modi, RSS, Bhartiya ajanta party, three years of modi government, atal bihari vajpayee, LK advani, NDA, india news, indian express news It is therefore probably no accident that Modi is the first Prime Minister of India after Mrs Gandhi to clearly try to project a vision of the India he wants. (Illustration by-Subrata Dhar)

I miss the old RSS. I never liked their views, but I appreciated the sophistication of their position. When I first arrived in the United States, I would try to explain to my new friends the fact that the RSS did not want Muslims to convert since they were already, in effect, Hindus who practiced Islam. All they wanted, my RSS friends would tell me, was that the Muslims accepted that there was no escape.

I understood why many Muslims found this offensive or worse, but it did stand in interesting contrast with the naked proselytising zeal that Christians and Mormons in Ronald Reagan’s America were awash with. “Don’t you want to be saved?” was often the opening gambit. “We have ways to discuss religion that do not descend to this level”, I would try to imply to them. I am not sure they understood.

In my youth, the typical RSS representative I met was an intellectual; they quoted the Quran at me and I, who had not read it, could not respond. Much like the Communists, for the aspiring intellectuals among us, they provided a forum where one could discuss ideas and aspirations that went beyond the merely mundane; again, like the Communists, they tended to be generous with their support, psychological, pedagogical and economic.

I was one of the privileged, and could afford to disdain what both sides had to offer, but I did appreciate what they were trying. I have no idea whether this is actually how it happened in his specific case, but I can see exactly how a clever and intellectually voracious young man from a disadvantaged background, like Narendra Modi, could have ended up as a swayamsevak.

BJP, narendra Modi, Modi, RSS, Bhartiya ajanta party, three years of modi government, atal bihari vajpayee, LK advani, NDA, india news, indian express news

It is therefore probably no accident that Modi is the first Prime Minister of India after Mrs Gandhi to clearly try to project a vision of the India he wants. It is not a vision I like — Modi’s India is strong, modern and developed but not open, liberal or moral — but I appreciate his effort to inspire us to think beyond ourselves after the decade of silence with Manmohan Singh.

Indeed, it is part of Modi’s political genius that he figured out that the average Indian is actually happy to make sacrifices for the nation and values being asked. That is why demonetisation, despite being entirely ill-conceived as a policy, remains popular — people appreciate the ambition behind the project, the desire for a cleaner India at the cost of some short-run pain, even if the implementation was lacking.

What worries me is that Modi is the only one among those who wield power in the BJP today who is still a chip off that old RSS block. The rest are either men of action — administrators or party men — or straightforward thugs. The historian Ram Guha made the point to me that in the previous NDA government, almost all the top ministers were very well-read and had written books — think of Atal Bihari Vajpayee, L.K. Advani, Jaswant Singh or Arun Shourie — which is obviously not the case now.

This matters for two reasons. First, being a part of intellectual debates affects the decision-maker’s ability to engage with and learn from those whom they disagree with. Jagat Mehta, Nehru’s one-time private secretary and an ardent Nehruvian, was foreign secretary when Vajpayee was foreign minister in the Janata Party government in the late 1970s. Between them, they crafted our most successful engagement with Pakistan in the post-Independence era, largely because they could talk to each other with mutual respect across the political divide that separated them. The fact that a man as brilliant and committed as Raghuram Rajan could be sacrificed for political exigencies suggests to me that we no longer live in that same world.

Second, and perhaps more importantly, it changes the nature of the political engagement with delicate issues like religion. In the old RSS, religion was not about individuals — they often had Muslim or Christian partners or wives (I am afraid they were all upper caste men; that has not changed very much). It was a way of thinking about the world.

That distinction is crucial in politics because it changes the nature of the conflict. Once it is about whether I have the right to beat you up because you ate or sold beef, rather than about whether there should be a debate about what Indian-ness constitutes and whether it should proscribe the consumption of beef, I am afraid we are lost.

Living in America, I am often confronted with the analogy between Modi and Donald Trump. Both are men who make a virtue of being strong and have generally right-wing views — but the similarity ends there. Modi has enormous forbearance and discipline about things he cares for, both of which the American president could definitely do with. Modi, when he does open his mouth, usually appeals to our highest sentiment, whereas Trump trumpets his basest instincts.

My problem with Modi is that he stays silent so often as to allow the worst of his party to drive the agenda. This may be strategic, but it is a dangerous game to play. The Republican Party in the United States is now paying the price of a two-faced approach, where the top leaders of the party would talk about shared American values, but allow a coalition of racists, misogynists and people obsessed with not paying taxes to set the actual agenda. At some point, that coalition decided there was no reason to keep up the façade any more — hence, Donald Trump.

Something similar could happen to the BJP. Sooner or later, someone in the BJP who is much more openly hostile to the minorities will realise that they could be a more credible standard-bearer for the extreme right than Modi; if the party continues to indulge that wing rather than reining them in, they might have the legitimacy to take on Modi and win. It is time we start paying attention to what is happening within the right. And maybe Modi should as well.

The writer teaches economics at MIT and co-created MIT’s Micromasters in Data and Economics for Development Policy

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  1. S
    Srikanth
    May 27, 2017 at 11:53 am
    The problem with Indians living in the US and commenting about India is that they know very less of India .. no doubt they are intellectuals but they lack that Indian flavour .. Raghuram Rajan would make a better fed governor than an RBI governor .. am not going to comment more on this article.. just one thing .. India today needs doers more than thinkers .. not that thinkers are not important .. of course they are .. but for over 60 years we have been only thinking and doing less .. we need someone like Modi and Amit shah today .. actually all we want is another ten years of this rule in India .. after that we don't care who is in power .. cos whoever it is , they have to follow the process that is being set today .. by then many things in India would become irreversible .. it's not the party which matters to us ., it's the actions .. so please sip your Starbucks coffee and chill on the Miami beach side with your Long Island .. just leave India to these people for a few more years ..
    Reply
    1. A
      Arshad Islam
      May 27, 2017 at 10:54 am
      The author thinks Modi does not support the oppressive and communal policies of the bjp. I think he strongly supports it. The only reason he does not openly support it is not to rattle the illusion of voters who support for the promise of economic development.
      Reply
      1. S
        SubbuI
        Jun 1, 2017 at 3:02 am
        I ABSOLUTELY AGREE THAT MODI STRONGLY SUPPORTS THE FRINGE ELEMENTS AS HE IS THE CHILD OF RSS AND GROWN IN THEIR IDEOLOGY HE GOT WEDDED TO RSS ALMOST DIVORCING HIS WEDED WIFE IN LURCH. WHEN TIME COMES HE WILL SHOW THAT HE IS WOLF IN THE SKIN COAT OF COW. WHO CAN FORGET HIS ROLEIN 2002 GUJARATH BUTCHERING OF 3000 MSLIMS IN A SINGLE NIGHT
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      2. R
        Ram
        May 26, 2017 at 11:14 pm
        To all anti-Hindu 'intolarance' brigade like this author, that young muslim lady who married to a stani begged to come back to India ruled by 'Hindu fanatics' tells all! She nailed your lies and almost slapped all pseudo-secular anti-national left brigade of propa ists! Hoe many muslims moved over to pak/Bangladesh? Reality is crores of Bangla muslims sneak inside India illegally, even Rohingas want to do that. And same time every Hindu/Sikh from stan refuses to go back to that wretched life reserved for minorities there. Does it say something about reality, notwithstanding all your cacophony of intolerance by Hindu nationalists?
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        1. M
          Member intolerance brigade
          May 27, 2017 at 11:08 am
          Agree that India still much better place than "stan" though the right wing is trying hard to make this a Hindu stan.
          Reply
        2. K
          kvjayan
          May 26, 2017 at 11:02 pm
          The author writes: "The fact that a man as brilliant and committed as Raghuram Rajan could be sacrificed for political exigencies...". The 3-year term of this Rajan was over and he went back to his academic job in the US.
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          1. R
            Ram
            May 26, 2017 at 11:02 pm
            The propa a of 'intolerance' using three stray incidents in a nation of 1.3Billion enslaved for last 1000 years is going on! These left 'liberal' croks never ever mention murder, kil;l and ault culture of leftists when they have power and clout as in WB/Kerala of almost elminating their opposition and ideological compe ors. Or utter dishonesty of pseudo-intellectuals of left parasites embedded in JNU/AMU/HCU/JU etc. mostly in unproductive social sciences departments, that any idea others then their cocoon of thoughts is not worth debating, and tar all such people even a Harvard economist/professor Dr. SubramanSwamy or Nobel Laureate Naipaul as rightwing fanatics, but never intellectuals. and many great nationalistic writers/poets of 'sahitya academy' 'gnayna peeth academy' standing like Dr. Bhairappa of Kannada are deliberately negleted/sidelined and when new administration of nationalists give them their due respect like making them national professor etc. they are decried!
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            1. J
              jai
              May 26, 2017 at 9:53 pm
              Secularists like this author keep on creating false dichotomy - soft 'old' RSS vs aggressive 'new' RSS, soft Atal vs aggressive Modi, soft Modi vs. aggressive Yogi etc. The fact is that they cannot tolerate the rise of proud, ertive Hindu society. They rather prefer a meek, docile Hinduism that can be trampled upon while perfunctorily praising it for its 'tolerance'.
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              1. S
                sochee
                May 26, 2017 at 9:35 pm
                Narendra Modi refused to listen to Nehruvian counsel of another Panditji,. Vajpayee and to condemn them to doom.So in the consciousness of Hindus Modi became the yardstick against which other brahminical leaders faded. Still Modi would not be in this position so soon but for the indiscretion committed by Advani by hai Jinnah as a secular epitome at the instance of a fellow traveller Sudhindra Kulkarni. Inspite of immensely deserving it Advani threw away his chance to become leader of Hindus and subsequently the PM. It defies one's imagination why Advani depended so much on a shady character like Kulkarni. That in my opinion is the making of Narendra Modi and he can never be a open liberal and what not, if he really wants to lead us Hindus. Remember even Lord Krishna had to be born in a so called disadvantaged clan the founder of which was cast out by king Yajati. HE was not born to Brahmin parents.Otherwise he would have also messed up.
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                1. S
                  sochee
                  May 26, 2017 at 9:04 pm
                  I could not understand many of the arguments put forth by this MIT professor.He himself admits that he came in contact with many RSS workers who were intellectually inclined but he is surprised to see Modi who according to the author is intellectually voracious, clever young man belonging to disadvantaged section in their company. Do all those people in RSS belong to privileged section? What about Uma Bharati? Narendra Modi could become Prime Minister because RSS did not invest in stolid Brahmanism unlike "Pandit" Nehru. Advani did not send his daughter to become Chief Minister of Gujarat.He sought out Narendra Modi as he had proved his mettle during Ram mandir agitation. That was the m movement for awakening of Hindu consciousness for a life with dignity in their own land crushed under Nehruvian regime which was open liberal and moral so to say. Then as was the won't in liberal,open and moral Nehruvian India horrors of Godhra happened. But this time the response was different.
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