National Interest: Secularism is dead!

This anti-Modi battle cry is lazy, illiberal and an affront to Muslims — and to Hindus.

Written by Shekhar Gupta | New Delhi | Updated: April 18, 2014 11:52 pm

This anti-Modi battle cry is lazy, illiberal and an affront to Muslims — and to Hindus.

If the opinion polls turn out to be generally correct, and Narendra Modi comes to power, it will unleash an angry flurry of obituaries of Indian secularism. Last week, some of India’s most respected public intellectuals signed a joint appeal to save the idea of India from Modi. That his rise is a crucial turn in the Hindutva project that began with the Babri Masjid demolition. That nobody and nothing will be able to resist this wave of saffron communalism. Not the liberals among the majority Hindus, not our great institutions and, least of all, Muslims.

Nothing could be lazier, more cowardly, illiberal or unfair to all three. Let me try to explain.

I said in a television discussion on NDTV 24×7 last week that India was not a secular country because only its minorities wished it to be secular. India is secular because its Hindu majority wants it to be so. I said, also, that if I were an Indian Muslim, I couldn’t be faulted for thinking sometimes that both sides on the secular divide in this election were hell bent on fighting their ideological battle to the last Muslim. It drew quite a bit of comment and I think it deserves a more detailed elaboration than a sound bite would allow.

This is how the picture would look to an Indian Muslim. First, the BJP, it would seem, has accepted that Muslims won’t vote for it, and it couldn’t care less. It would simply contest this election with, to take liberties with a golfing metaphor, a handicap of 15 per cent. The BJP is therefore not even bothering to address Muslim concerns and fears specifically. The “secular” group, led by the Congress, on the other hand, is pitchforking India’s Muslims into this unequal fight against the BJP. As if the responsibility of saving our secularism lies with our Muslim minority. An Indian Muslim would find it both unfair and worrying.

To say that only Muslim consolidation can stop Modi, or at least limit his mandate, is unfair to the Hindu majority as well. It is as if all of the Hindus have joined the RSS and have no faith in constitutional secularism. This is rubbish. Because if such was the case,  Modi would probably equal Rajiv Gandhi’s 1984 mandate of 415, if not better it. No such thing is about to happen. The most generous opinion poll estimates put the NDA’s vote share in the mid-30s, which accounts for just over a third of India’s Hindus. The remaining majority will be voting for others. And most of these 30-odd per cent would vote for the BJP/NDA not because they want to build grand temples, spank the Muslims or banish them to Pakistan. They will be voting in search of an alternative to the weakest, most incompetent, uncommunicative and incoherent full-term government in our history. Having voted in the UPA so enthusiastically for a second time, they are going elsewhere, in search of jobs, more buying power, stability and confidence. To insinuate that this mass of Hindus will be voting Modi because they have suddenly turned communal is unfair to them.

It is also intellectually lazy, morally cynical and politically disastrous. Put more simply, it is a bit like saying that Hindus have been voting for the Congress and other “secular” forces all these decades because they were not given a convincing saffron option.

India gave itself a secular, liberal constitution because a vast majority of all its people, in fact almost unanimously, determined that this was the finest formulation for nation-building in a land as diverse and complex as ours. The Constituent Assembly had participation from across the many ideological divides. The document it drafted has now acquired the status of scripture and nobody in mainstream politics dares to question it. The man credited with leading that process, Ambedkar, has been added to our pantheon of all-party gods.

It is also unique. Unlike Western countries, where secularism means living with one or two faiths, Christianity and Judaism or Islam, India is a deeply religious country, and peopled by every religion invented, including the many thousand variants of Hinduism. As Wendy Doniger says in her magisterial book, The Hindus — the one Penguin pulped, quivering with fear in the face of a man called Dina Nath Batra — Hinduism is the “Ellis Island of religions”. Pluralism and diversity are deeply ingrained in it, “the lines between different beliefs and practices are permeable membranes”. That is why, she says, there are countless more narratives of Hinduism than the ones defined by Sanskrit, Brahmins and the Gita. And if I may dare to make my own risky addition to that list of defining three, by the RSS or VHP.

In a country where the determinants of identity change every 10 miles, from religion to caste to language to ethnicity to culture, tribe, sub-tribe and region, secularism is the glue needed to keep it all together. It isn’t just a charter to protect Muslims. The Hindus need it as much as them. That is all the more reason why India is secular, and must remain so.

Indian Muslims can, in fact, complain that over the decades, they have been taken for granted and offered a minimal political deal in return for their votes: to give them physical protection from the Hindu right. I know some will argue that even that promise was never really kept. But the truth is, the Muslim vote has been hostage to fear. Explaining why he had joined the BJP now, M.J. Akbar said to me that in the “Congress/secular” view so far, the Indian Muslim had to conform to one of three stereotypes: the decadent, decrepit feudal with sherwani fraying at the collar, as portrayed in the 1960s’ “Muslim socials” like Mere Mehboob, a riot victim like the crying Gujarati with folded hands in that infamous 2002 portrait, or a petty criminal in the image of Haji Mastan, even if sometimes with a sacrificing heart of gold.

Since he hasn’t delivered, despite my asking him several times to put this in an article, I am borrowing the idea. That mainstream, liberal politics in India has deliberately failed to treat the Muslim as a mainstream Indian. The extreme and most shameful manifestation of this was Azam Khan’s claim that the peaks of Kargil were conquered not by Hindu soldiers of our army, but by Muslims with the battle cry of Allah-o-Akbar. This is not a secular claim, but amounts to spreading communalism to the one institution that remains so secular, the army. It is true that Muslim soldiers fought alongside the Hindus and the rest in Kargil. Two of the battalions with mostly Muslim soldiers, 12 JAK LI and 22 Grenadiers, suffered heavy casualties.

But to now view them in isolation, through a sectarian prism, and pit them competitively against their fellow soldiers from other faiths is not secularism. It isn’t even pseudo-secularism. It is the most cynical, anti-minority communalism. That is why this newspaper and this writer had objected so furiously to the Sachar Committee’s misplaced idea of investigating the recruitment patterns and numbers of Muslims in the army (‘Kitne Musalman hain?’, National Interest, IE, February 18, 2006, iexp.in/FC79596)

The fundamental values of our secular Constitution sustain because of our institutions, which are trusted as fair and secular. The Election Commission can send Imran Masood to jail, ban Azam Khan and Amit Shah and then let one off with an apology. Some will call it unfair but nobody calls it communal. The Supreme Court, the UPSC, the armed forces, the mainstream media and the public intellectual class are, by and large, liberal and secular. Of course, these institutions will be tested by such a fundamental ideological shift on Raisina Hill.

But that is why the founding fathers invented them. We need to strengthen them, preserve their credibility and freedoms to protect and strengthen our secularism. It is too hasty to write its epitaph. Or to hunt for a sabbatical to a liberal campus on the American east coast until some post-Modi secular resurrection. I am conscious that this column is being written on Good Friday. But that is purely coincidental.

sg@expressindia.com

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First Published on: April 19, 2014 12:13 am
  1. B
    B. SRIDHAR
    Mar 8, 2015 at 11:15 am
    Well what can one expected from a self proclaimed leftist liberal. Six and half decades of appeasing Muslims ( not minorities because they cannot under any cirstanced be defined as minorities because, they are the second largest set of potion(without control) in India. The problem with the media is that they have lost the coziness and opportunity for whining they had for the last six and a half decades. May we call jealousy and helplessness!!!!!!!!
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    1. S
      shashiendra
      Mar 5, 2015 at 12:22 pm
      British ruled India got divided on the lines of religion - India was not secular. MMS promised first right on Indian resources to Muslims - India is not secular. Muslims of India vote collectively on the basis of there own communal interests- India is not secular. AND ABOVE ALL- Holy Quran considers Hindus as Kaafirs(Ignorant) and exhorts Muslims to educate them through Jihad which implies that all believing in that Text can never be secular.Hence with the non secular second majority India does not have any chance of being secular.
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      1. R
        Raju Charles
        Mar 9, 2015 at 7:01 pm
        Secularism and Justice! No more reservation based on wicked caste and religion! Affirmative Action for all! One India,not caste India! Let India Be Strong!
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        1. S
          Steve Bakewell
          Jan 7, 2015 at 4:04 am
          Muslims are not a minority they are the second majoirty.. the real minorities are the tribals,buddhists,sikhs,parsis and the dalits&brahmins.
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          1. Z
            zahedi
            Apr 19, 2014 at 1:33 pm
            Can't agree any more, so true
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            1. D
              Debashree Mukherjee
              Sep 15, 2014 at 3:23 pm
              Although various pronouncements of theConsution guarantee the ‘neutrality’of the state towards all religions and the freedom of ‘conscience’ of individuals against any form of forceful conversion,a huge void has been created between theory and practise. These days, religionis increasingly being used as a tool to pit one community against the other,thereby sowing seeds of sectarianism and communalism. Religious sentiments ofpeople very often become the soft target of parties and insutions, therebytriggering unsocial activities affecting the harmony between communities. Eventoday, minorities in India neither feel secure nor do they feel as being a partof the country itself. The reason behind such discrimination is that whileIndia is tolerant towards all religions, majority of people here are bound by‘Hindu’ feelings or sentiments. This pride of consuting the majority of thepotion in the country ultimately manifests itself in acts of exterminationof minorities, ault on the dignity of women and men alike, forcefulconversion of religion, destruction of religious insutions; communal riotsso on and so forth. While such atrocities are by all means penalising, seldomdo steps are taken to this effect. The reasons are by now clear as to whysecularism is a dying concept in the Indian context. The situation would onlyworsen day by day, unless men are wise enough to foresee the future they arethrusting themselves into.
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              1. H
                Harihar Mani
                Apr 19, 2014 at 1:22 pm
                M.A. Akbar 's column used to appear in TOI under;Seize within' .He is one Muslim in India who has got it right.I have one beef with him.I'm using the word beef with purpose why it took him this long to leave Congress'I will have this to bone pick with him for long.Never mind past Dear Sehkar saheb,I now days recommand my friends to read your column,as you have got your act to-gather right now.Better late than never.The problem ,the rise of Modi and BJP today is the direct result of UPA2 and neglect of interest of the liberal sensible Hindus like me and friend like fellow friend from Hyderabad one muslim mr Mehmood.We are dislusioned by this blatant apeat and casting Hindus in 2 group good and evil--one who are followers of RSS,one who are followers of Sonia. Nothing can harm India also Congress more.You are right the 'idea of sicular' India is because of Hindu tolerance and to put Muslims as saving sicularism is false,just look around 36 muslim lands and you will know how tolerant and sicular they are.I rest my case..o,the Sun has risen there will now'Rosani on earth now!!'.This how rediculous these pseudo sicular sound and that is why Modi will win.
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                1. J
                  Jitendra
                  Apr 19, 2014 at 8:21 am
                  Very well saidpliments.Let us hope that the secularism as defined and practiced by "secular parties" is given a decent burial after 16th May 2014.After 16th May, Hindus and Muslims should come together and appeal to all political parties to stop worrying about them as Hindus or Muslims.It may sound rhetorical on part of Modi but he is right when he says that he will worry and work for all 125 crore Indians.If he does that honestly and effectively, no need to save secularism.
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                  1. J
                    joe
                    Apr 20, 2014 at 5:16 am
                    agree .for too long secularism in india has come to mean minority appeat. as a christian do not want anything special compared to others. only wish is that we enjoy the same rights like others ,and treated same political leanings do not want to be influenced by so called community leaders as it is an affront to my intelligence and capacity to take decisions.always felt religion is a very personal thing.polarisation has come to india because playing cast and religious card has been seen as a short cut to power.
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                    1. P
                      Pranshu Sharma
                      Apr 21, 2014 at 10:38 am
                      shekhar ji. Your links to older articles used to be shortened using goo.gl and used to work, the new ones on iexp do not, please keep using goo.gl. [Example in above is iexp/FC79596 which redirects to iexp/index.php?id=FC79596 and gives and error].
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                        prasad
                        Apr 20, 2014 at 1:54 am
                        For a number of Indian Muslims, religion is first and nation next. For Hindus, caste is religion.
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                        1. T
                          tinhed
                          Apr 19, 2014 at 9:34 am
                          Hats off to Mr gupta for such a well written article. Couldnt agree with you more, especially on the bit that even the majority of hindus still believe in the secular credentials and want india to be secular.
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                          1. V
                            Vadish Vadish
                            Apr 20, 2014 at 1:56 am
                            Well written. Except the example of Amit Shah pitted against Azam Khan and that Boti-boti chap. Really its like comparing someone saying 'I'll slap you' with someone carrying a knife "threatening to plunge it into ones stomach', and then equating the two. Azam Khan has been repeating his offense and refuses to apologise. Amit Shah has tendered regret saying this will not repeat in future. Moreover, Imran, to the best of my knowledge has not at all been acted upon by EC. An FIR was lodged and he was sent to jail by SP Govt. Its a lie to say EC had something to do with this fact my grouse is, they did nothing about him! and Rahul hi shamelessly using his wife the next day for sympathy.
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                            1. T
                              Then Sue
                              Apr 19, 2014 at 3:32 pm
                              This is going to be a little longer....please bear with me..The language of the article seemed rhetorical and ertive. As if numerous attempts of Hindu ideny consolidation were not enough an 'intellectual' (Mr. Gupta) comes out with his own 'innovation' albeit with words carefully chosen to give it a secular color anddubbing it as a normal intellectual discourse. After having read the article, I kept on thinking as to what was 'intellectual' in there. This is rhetoric and no innovation. First our insutions of democracy and more importantly those of 'rule of law' are evolving and a majority of them aren't even good enough let alone be great. This can be seen in retrograde judgements on section 377 of IPC and in the acquittal of m murderers by our 'esteemed' judiciary, in saving some of their own from the alleged ual harment of their own interns, in the brutal torture of a tribal woman by police in the name of interrogation, in alleged rapes and murders committed by our armed forces' personnel and the list goes on. Need you to be reminded more? One would hardly try to test this immature platform by putting an anarchist gorilla (the NDA) on it. Second, the expected future new leadership which the Hindu Savarn (or should I say 'Sanatanik Savarn') is so eager to experience has many dubious credentials. The main party in that g coalition has been supporter of some private militias, declared terrorist outfits by GOI. The slain leader of a famed such terrorist outfit whose hatred towards the dalits and landless labourers including poor muslims is well known through his public statements has been an ardent supporter of the expected future leadership. To top the charts a prominent politician among this expected new leadership himself believe that the dalits and other lower castes (Shudras) chose to do demeaning works because of some divine realisation that serving others is the greatest service. One other Savarna also chose to do these demeaning works by himself including disposing his own himself but he became the father of the nation, the Mahatma. By that analogy we must have some 40 million fathers of the nation err..there was no one nation at that time so we could at least call them the fathers of the Vedic or Sanatana Dharma. Instead they received torture, rapes, hunger, starvation and death that too without touching them. It is time that the coming generations are told truth about the bloody cultural subjugation in history that this subcontinent has witnessed the remanents of which are still very much practised through covert and overt actions in the society and across so called insutions of democracy seldom accompanied by violence. It is time to give push to an 'Indian' ideny than some divisive ideny like 'Hinduism'. 'Hindu' is a very loose term used to define amalgamation of people who are not Muslims, Christians, Jews and followers of a couple of other religions originated in Middle East. Even followers of some distinct religions like Sikhism, Jainism, Buddhism etc. and some characteristically different sects like Raidasia, Kabirpanth etc. are included just to increase numbers. True that these all religions and sects are governed by some common legislations like Hindu Marriage Act etc., it doesn't make them fundamentally same though some of these are technically recognised as Hindus. In fact these all religions and sects are fundamentally and characteristically different from the 'Vedic' or 'Sanatana' dharma. While the former emphasise upon harmony through equality the later emphasise upon harmony with no mention of equality and in fact the fundamentals of the later are anathema to equality. If I was to choose between equality and harmony, I would choose the former. Rigidity and non-pragmatism and over the top ritualism not to mention the famed Chaturvarna system, led to desertion of Sanatana Dharma by many of its followers and ceased its spread. Today the followers of Vedic culture have found this word 'Hindu' as their weapon to consolidate all other faiths with them to just enhance their numbers for they naively fear their cultural subjugation or perhaps extinction in the face of the spread of other two great religions i.e, Christianity and Islam. Why else then is this the case that almost invariably the cry of 'Hindu consolidation' and 'the Hindu culture in danger' comes from those who are staunch followers of 'Sanatana' or 'Vedic Dharma'? To the pleasure of these some misguided but highly motivated people yesteryears 'Shudras' and today's Backward and Other Backward Castes who in the absence of any other credible ideny are blindly ready to get co-opted by this cultural st forgetting their own distinct cultural heritage and who have vast numeric strength, have fallen prey to their ploy. How else can one explain the phenomenal rise of some fundamental organisations from a mere earthworm to a hydra headed creature i.e., from a core support of a few million elitists to the acceptance by almost one third of the potion of the country? Only this explanation works.The people of different sects and religions vote for secularism, rule of law and democracy because they believe more in their ideny as an 'Indian' than that of belonging to these religions and sects. Telling them that they contribute in maintaining India a secular country as much as and perhaps much more than the Muslims, the Christians etc. or telling them that it is only because of them secularism is secured in India is equivalent to offering them another (Hindu) ideny above the ideny of being an Indian.Even with Congress the so called 'socialist party' the discrimination against the marginalised is rampant in educational and other administrative spheres, with the NDA in power these hostile elements will only get a boost. While I was travelling in train a few days back a fellow traveller summed it up beautifully. When asked upon as to whom one should vote for; the Congress or the BJP, he asked me a counter question,' Suppose you are travelling in night and you reach a 'T' point, signboard on one route says: you shall be robbed and possibly stabbed, while on the other it read: you shall be robbed and stabbed, which route you would prefer?'. It was an easy but at the same time a difficult choice to make for the loss was inevitable so I said,' the first one for sure'. He smiled and said then go for the Congress. I did not forget to mention the new player the AAP but my omission is deliberate; the reason is that these guys are apparently so simple that it is difficult to understand them, a paradox which I so wish is resolved soon.
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                              1. I
                                Indian
                                Apr 19, 2014 at 10:27 am
                                To Shekhar , minority community has it's fair amout of fear. But Majority community has it's own fear .As you know India has a very disturbing past .It has been ruled by different Muslims rulers and British. India has taken the hit by centurites by Muslims invaders. So as internet age is coming ,yound India is more aware of it's past. It's easy to say that India's welcome everyone. But it's truths has India has been ruled by sword. stan Bangladesh were part of India but as Islam spreads,and we all know how it got spread, parion happen because Muslims become majority in those areas. India lost it land. Now as muslims potion is incresing much faster than other religion , slowly fear is building.There is proof that Muslims potion is increasing by 1% every decade . So called secualar leaders are busy in appeat.Look in my State Bihar , when Nitish kumar take on Modi , morally it seems correct. But when his Govt didn't show the guts of taking custody of IM terrorsit Bhatkal , majority commmunity fear get increased.And the demographic changes are also creating friction. So this divide ofHindu Muslims are deep rooted. When you say that majority communty is secular and rightly so , but slowly many in majority community is thinking the BJP line.
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                                1. S
                                  Sudhansu Thakur
                                  Apr 29, 2014 at 1:06 pm
                                  As per my view in current if you talk about Hindu or all you will descibed as communal. It has been seen and proved that Hindus were never been communal otherwise Congress never win any election as per their appeat policies. The soul of country has been always secular. But congress and these pseudo secular parties maligned that spirit.
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                                    jaago India
                                    Apr 19, 2014 at 9:43 am
                                    Agreed with Shekhar....the problem is what Congress professes is not secularism but a 'political tactics' which neither helps the muslims nor the hindus but is designed to help Congress. Congress with the help of the muslim leaderships has created a 'muslim vote bank' which has helped congress to stay in power for long. Muslims have not gained anything by converting themselves as a 'vote bank' . Its high time muslims align themselves in the mainstream & rip benefits as others......a clic case is that of 'dalits'....they moved beyond 'vote bank' are now present & represented in almost every party.
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