So That Mothers Can Work

Gender neutral leave will not bias employers against hiring women.

Written by Aparajita Dasgupta | Published:September 2, 2016 12:07 am
Pregnancy, also known as gravidity or gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins. Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology. It usually lasts around 40 weeks from the last menstrual period (LMP) and ends in childbirth. This is just over nine lunar months, where each month is about 29½ days. When measured from conception it is about 38 weeks. An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight weeks following conception, after which, the term fetus is used until birth. Symptoms of early pregnancy may include missed periods, tender breasts, nausea and vomiting, hunger, and frequent urination. Pregnancy may be confirmed with a pregnancy test. The new policy is a welcome move to start with. Such measures are even more crucial as we move away from the extended family system.

 

A recently announced policy seeks to increase paid maternity leave from the existing 12 weeks to 26 weeks. It is a welcome move towards increasing job security of female employees but the law may not be sufficient to fulfil its objectives if it ignores the implications on the broad incentive structure. A policy should not create grounds for employers to associate employing women workers with higher costs. This may exacerbate the trend of diminishing female labour force participation in India.

One can argue that without extended maternity leave, young mothers are likely to exit the labour force in order to take care of their children. The new policy is a welcome move to start with. Such measures are even more crucial as we move away from the extended family system. The secured paid leave is also important for child’s health and wellbeing; it allows the requisite time for early breastfeeding and parental bonding with the child. A number of studies show that early nurturing by parents goes a long way in improving a child’s cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes. It is an investment that pays off for the society as a whole.

But policies like maternity leave are often associated with unintended consequences. If the provision of increased mandatory maternity leave is financed entirely by the employers, it is likely that they would factor in such costs and that, in turn, may lead them to reduce hiring young women. It may be more difficult for a woman of reproductive age to find a job in the formal sector in such a case. Their taking time off may also affect their prospects for promotion.

We need careful labour market policies that will provide the right incentives that can alleviate constraints and boost new job opportunities for women. One way of countering this negative consequence of the new policy is to have gender-neutral leave rules for parents. Paid leave for early child rearing should not bias the incentive structure against hiring women. Preventing the penalisation of the woman for the family’s fertility decisions can further the goal of gender equality. This provision would also allow both parents to be equal partners in bringing up the child.

One can think of a shared cost structure between the government and the employees for financing the paid leave. The cost of guaranteed paid leave can be funded by employees’ payroll deductions or through health insurance programmes, where the cost would be shared between the employee and the government. This would benefit a number of social objectives. First, the parental leave mandate would allow both parents to care for the child which can go a long way in improving human capital outcomes. Second, the dynamics of gender neutral leave policy, unlike that of exclusive maternity leave, would not discourage employers from hiring and promoting women. This would also encourage female workforce participation. Women will also not lose valuable experience and that will enhance their productivity. Finally, as we know from studies across countries, as labour market opportunities improve for women, the average fertility level declines in the society. An improvement in opportunities for women, including safe maternity benefits, could actually improve our population dynamics.

Empirical evidence from various countries shows that the costs of paid parental benefits, if borne by public funds or compulsory social nsurance, can provide the right incentives to avoid the marginalisation of women in the labour market.

The gender neutral parental leave will feed into efficient investments in form of early childhood benefits that will not only be efficient for the society at large but also ensure equitable employment opportunity for women.

The writer is assistant professor of economics, Ashoka University

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  1. K
    K SHESHU
    Sep 2, 2016 at 2:14 pm
    The corporates stress importance of productive labour above gender equality. Already, the industry is male dominated. The government should make companies employ women compulsorily.
    Reply
    1. A
      Ashok
      Sep 2, 2016 at 3:14 pm
      It is well known that parenting of male child in India is such that he consider the household work and child-care as the exclusive responsibility of women, ignoring the fact that today women also contribute financially to family income. Besides the girls are given education and it will be criminal waste if they are not made employable. The maternity leave may be allowed to both the parents and the cost of maternity leave availed must be paid by the employer of the husband to employer of women. In case of self emplo persons, the cost must be recovered from the husband. This will reduce the financial burden from women employer. The disruption in work however will remain.
      Reply
      1. B
        baruna dasgupta
        Sep 2, 2016 at 12:04 pm
        The article written by Prof.Dasgupta has correctly pointed to the important direction to improve the job security for the female workers addition,it would improve the individual family- life--where such discrimination is responsible for the breakdown of a family-life in India.lt;br/gt;Again,the number of female workers is more in informal sectors . It would be very good if some ways could be found out to improve the poor condition of the female(mother-worker) workers in Indian society.
        Reply
        1. S
          SK
          Sep 2, 2016 at 2:01 pm
          that is correct---gt; the message of the article......another half baked measure by this government in wanting to show they are doing the right thing..... effect.....the employer will know it costs more to have a woman on roles for the longer pregnancy leave......and a greater disruption to his work.....and in a market like india where the supply of qualified worker is always greater than the demand....this makes the women less "employable".....the govt should have paid for the extended leave ( like in Europe insurance/ govt and/or social security takes over pregnancy and military service.lt;br/gt;lt;br/gt;Not different from the recent surrogacy bill-----gt; where instead of working out a regulatory mechanism to support this industry.......they used their archaic , puranic, personal value / belief system....which ended a clean livelihood of many women both on the medical industry side as well as those working as surrogates 👎
          Reply
          1. S
            Srinivasan
            Sep 2, 2016 at 2:49 am
            Author is absolutely correct in her view of unintended consequences of high cost of women employment; But Can someone educate Menka hi and she does not seem to have clear understanding of maternity leave in today Indian context (where men bear most of new family burden)
            Reply
            1. V
              V. Ramaswami
              Sep 2, 2016 at 11:49 am
              The argument is not about extended maternity leave, but how "extended" extended should be. In the interest of vote getting, politicians are turning the nation into one of enlement seekers with no regard to the side effects of their actions. A proper approach would be to give leave for a reasonable time until the mother regains full health and as also the baby and supplement with help such as dependable child care where needed. Also, does anyone bother to ask how providing paid leave takes care of mothers in the unorganized section who are the ones in greater need?
              Reply
              1. S
                sham
                Sep 2, 2016 at 9:12 am
                A J IT V A D A K Y I L dot B L O G S P O T dot I N see this today without fails
                Reply
                1. S
                  sham
                  Sep 2, 2016 at 9:11 am
                  A J IT V A D A K Y I L dot B L O G S P O T dot I Nlt;br/gt;see this today without fails
                  Reply
                  1. S
                    sham
                    Sep 2, 2016 at 9:02 am
                    a j i t v a d a k a y i l dot b l o g s p o t dot in
                    Reply
                    1. S
                      sham
                      Sep 2, 2016 at 9:01 am
                      utterly confusing and incomplete article , begging to the govt for subsidy
                      Reply
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