Hubris of science

It has become an ideology of the powerful. Democratic societies need a plurality of knowledge systems

Written by Avijit Pathak | Published:August 12, 2017 12:01 am
Scientific, Education, religious intolerance, obstruction, research, science, Indian Express Education, Education news Scientists and students take part in ‘March for Science’ in Delhi on Wednesday. (Photo by Gajendra Yadav)

“Scientists march against unscientific, obscurantist ideas”. News of this kind attracts our attention, primarily for two reasons. First, the cognitive power that modern science is endowed with makes us believe that it is always progressive and emancipatory. Second, in these troubled times when all manner of falsehood is projected as “truth” in the name of faith, science is seen as a saviour — a “true consciousness” of sorts. No wonder, when marches were held in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Pune and other cities, and scientists from top institutions raised their voice against religious intolerance and the paucity of adequate funds for scientific research, it is regarded as a progressive venture. Even though science plays an important role in our quest for knowledge, and scientists have reasons to articulate their voices of concern, I want to interrogate the taken-for-granted/simplistic notion of science as something sacrosanct, its self-image as a body of superior knowledge, not to be doubted by anybody.
There is a heroic notion of modern science that evolved through Baconian empiricism and Cartesian rationality, Newtonian physics and Darwinian theory of evolution, causal explanation and determinism, Industrial Revolution and technological progress.

As sociologist Robert Merton has argued, the four “institutional imperatives” of science — universalism, communism (or shared knowledge),disinterestedness and organised scepticism — made it into a cherished doctrine of liberal/democratic/secular values. Science, we are led to believe, fights dogmas and practices, it gives us clarity of understanding, and the power to demystify and objectify nature for establishing human control over it, and hence, no modern nation in its quest for material wealth and secular reasoning can escape science. Possibly Jawaharlal Nehru’s celebration of “scientific temper” was based on this grand optimism centered on the ability of science to emancipate mankind from what Auguste Comte — the early champion of positivism — would have regarded as “theological” and “metaphysical” fixations. In fact, in all modern nation-states, science has been heavily pampered; science is close to the centre of power.

The achievements of science are remarkable. Yet, its very success is its tragedy. Science has been reduced to scientism: It has become hegemonic, an ideology of the powerful, be it the militaristic state or the glitz of corporate capitalism. Scientists, as Paul Feyerabend revealed with extraordinary insight, are like “determined conquerors” who seem to have destroyed all other traditions of knowledge. The orthodoxy of old-fashioned priests, astrologers and practitioners of witchcraft is nothing compared to the damage caused by the official priests of heavily-pampered techno science — emissions from nuclear reactors, or, for that matter, bombardment of human body and soul by the technologies of, to use Ivan Illich’s words, “diagnostic imperialism”.

Yes, the non-critical adherents of science would always argue that science is pure — free from “interests” — and it is the political system that has to be blamed for the aberrations. This logic is superficial because science is never practiced in a state of social vacuum: Research priorities are often dependent on the interests of donor agencies. Moreover, despite tremendous progress in the philosophy of science, the majority of the practitioners remain reductionist and deterministic in their approach. They fail to understand the nuanced meanings of reality — the entire domain of symbolism, human longing and creative exploration. Man is not just “rational” and “logical”; man is also a visionary, a mystic, a poet, a wanderer and civilisation progresses because there are multiple ways through which we make sense of the world. Science is just one way, it has no right to silence the other perspectives — say, the way Walt Whitman saw “miracle” in every inch of space, William Blake saw the entire world in a “grain of sand”, the Vedic sage saw man’s quest for the transcendental in the upward flame of agni or fire, and M.K. Gandhi saw Kurukshetra as the turbulent inner space torn between good and evil. Are all these articulations merely pieces of “fiction” without hard evidence? Is it not a fact that science too is a fiction, a modern mythology of “progress” that, despite the devastating wars, holocaust, environmental disaster, we continue to regard as “solid”, “objective” and “foundational”?

Superstitions have to be fought. However, it is wrong to believe that science alone can fight it. The sages with immense spiritual sensitivity have been fighting it. Where is the scope for fear mongering priestcraft, greedy astrologers and market-savvy, TV friendly babas and gurus in Chaitanya’s bhakti rasa, Kabir’s sublime prayers, and Ramakrishna’s ecstasy? In fact, at times we notice a strange case of compartmentalisation — from 9 am to 5 pm, I am a “scientist” in my lab and the rest of the day I think of the gold I have to offer to Tirupati temple for the marriage of my daughter.

A truly democratic society needs plurality of knowledge traditions, not just science. It needs a poet’s metaphor, an artist’s play of imagination, a prophet’s vision, a sage’s intuition; it also needs the language of folly. We need to be mad because, as Pascal said, not to be mad would amount to another form of madness. Scientists demand more grants for the promotion of science education. Have they ever thought that the other seekers of truth — poets, philosophers, historians and anthropologists — too need a solid support system? Have they ever thought that what goes on in the name of science education at our schools and colleges has got nothing to do with the spirit of critical enquiry? Possibly our scientists need to learn the art of self-criticism.

The writer is professor at the Centre for the Study of Social Systems, JNU

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  1. B
    Bala Varadarajan
    Aug 13, 2017 at 8:04 am
    "Science is pure. It is the political system that has to be blamed for the misuse of science" . How often we heard exactly the same argument defending Abrahamic faiths most notably Islam. Islam is not responsible for the misogyny , intolerance and violence but the humans practicing it. The author wants the Sciences should be tempered with Morality and ethics. I would further add that the religious faiths should be tempered with humanity and respect for Human Rights.
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      pankaj
      Aug 13, 2017 at 5:50 am
      Bhai lallo from social science, science is neither good nor bad, it is a tool and represents truth as best as understood by humans so far. Man/woman can be mystic or sage or spiritual or whatever man or woman want, but they can't hide behind those things to paint untruth as truth.
      Reply
      1. Y
        yousef
        Aug 12, 2017 at 8:20 pm
        Habermas in his critique of scientism, did not aim to get rid of science or subs ute it with Ramakrishna ecstacy. Habermas only wants to redirect science because it is essentially amoral. What you write above is therefore mostly without understanding. Also you seem to have a notion that scientists in academic arena who avoid teaching and republish old stuff or produce data to support something do science. What they do is merely escapism because of UGC rules. As Maslow says, dancer must dance and teacher must teach.
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        1. S
          Seshubabu Kilambi
          Aug 12, 2017 at 7:53 pm
          Diffeences between science and pseudo. Science' are getting blurred by the day as religion is beig mixed with science
          Reply
          1. S
            Saurabh
            Aug 12, 2017 at 5:40 pm
            Understand the author's concern. However, I think the root cause of such dispute is the lack of honesty, Integrity, intelligence in pursuit of other fields. Leaving out a few exceptions, religion seems to have been completely denigrated to a deal making/ Begging with God. People are simply treating their "Creator" as an agent of some authority. It doesn't even seem to have retained the character of being helpful for self-discovery. In this context, it's really difficult to convince any probing brain to respect religion. And of course, this might have an inductive effect on certain more deeper manifestations of religion. Further, true religion/ poetry has nothing to fear probably, it just has to be discovered again leaving out the dead cells. If you create a field which reveals the limitations of 'Science' n tries to address that, you may automatically have your audience. Perhaps that's how religions were made in the first place!
            Reply
            1. O
              Observer
              Aug 12, 2017 at 4:06 pm
              .(Contd...)(3). Religious practices must also be somewhat flexible considering huge crowds daily, so that the inner sanctum sanctorum area could be enlarged in diameter on one hand and on the other, multi-lane Q systems could be evolved/implemented around/outside the Bangaru Vakili area soonest possible. for much faster movement of huge crowds daily at the TTD Balaji temple. Ongoing body to body touchings, jostlings, pushings must also be controlled from now onwards at least. . Science, technology, religious practices/beliefs, social sciences, public admin. etc . also need to have effective competent think tanks in this context asap at TTD Thirumala.. Yes we can?
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                Observer
                Aug 12, 2017 at 4:03 pm
                (2). Also If you charge Rs.300 each for special darshan Tickets along with mandatory dress code walkings for almost one hour on a long circuitous route, , you have also to ensure their movng ahead right upto the temple Bangaru Vakili point here, rather than upto 40 percent distance only after this 40 percent distance, some TTD people merge the free darshan people also so that the dress code does not have any more any value/meaning from that point onwards from where daily the crowds in the Q are 40 p.c.appropriately dressed and 60 p.c appropriately dressed thanks to meherbaanis of some TTD people.!.So Midway Mockery of the dress code enforced at the entry point only for Rs.300 Spl.Darshan tickets people..(Contd...)
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                1. O
                  Observer
                  Aug 12, 2017 at 3:59 pm
                  1/3 TTD Thirumala Balaji temple’s main and secondary precincts closeby present a unique laudable sangam of science, technology, social sciences, dharam religious beliefs/practices etc. However when after some decades due to extra liberal darshan rules/regulations, huge crowds control/regulations needs also arise, suitable appropriate measures become urgently necessary. However neither science, technology, social sciences nor religious practices seem to be very helpful in the changing scenario. . Solutions continue to elude. If only some flexible religious practice/belief is shown and operated, the huge crowd problems near/within Golden Door premises here, jostlings, pushing outs, body to body touchings etc can be solved partly at least, besides enforcing 25 percent cuts in free darshan for persons from all over the country. (2). Also If you charge Rs.300 each for special darshan Tickets along with mandatory dress code walkings for almost one hour on a long (Contd...)
                  Reply
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