Reserved Bank of India

Demonetisation showed India’s central bank is too opaque. Its decision-making must be open to scrutiny

Written by Ila Patnaik | Published:January 14, 2017 12:18 am
reserve bank of india, rbi, raghuram rajan, rbi governor, sebi, rbi governor rajan, india news Reserve Bank of India. (Photo: PTI)

The RBI board’s decision to recommend withdrawal of legal tender of high denomination notes after a short board meeting  is seen as a loss of independence of the RBI. The recommendation was based on advice by the government that the RBI Central Board should consider such a decision. The RBI board was within its powers to turn it down. It could have directed the management to give it a report on the costs and benefits involved and taken a considered decision in its next meeting. Why did it not do so? Why could the government take the RBI board for granted?

To figure this out, we need to look at how the RBI Central Board normally makes decisions. As an example, we consider how the RBI Central Board decides the annual expenses of the RBI; a relatively important decision about spending public money. The RBI annual report shows the RBI’s annual expenses in 2014-15 were Rs 13,356 crore. These are comparable to the annual expenditure of many states in India, and many times bigger than that of most central banks and regulators in India and abroad. Nearly a third, or more than Rs 4,000 crore, is spent on RBI staff salaries, superannuation, housing, maintenance, directors’ fee and board meeting expenses. Such a large use of public money requires adequate scrutiny.

The board would discuss and approve the expenses and fulfill its role of controlling excessive expenditure by the management. However, there is no evidence available that the board even discusses this enormous annual spend of the RBI. Further, there is no evidence that the board looks after the public’s interest in the event that there may be a conflict with the interests of the management. This is something the Board would have been expected to do. The decision seems to be taken mainly by the management — without the scrutiny of the Board.

How could such an arrangement be possible in today’s India? The answer lies in the text of the RBI Act. In 1934, India’s British rulers did not see a role for defending public interest which could be in conflict with the interests of the RBI management — the sections of the Act relating to the functioning of the Board have not been amended even after Independence. Through regulations made by the Board (Regulation 15 of the RBI General Regulations), the board created a “Committee of the Central Board” to which it delegated all its powers. The management may invite a couple of directors to meetings of the Committee, based on whichever directors happen to be in Mumbai at the time. This Committee can meet often and take all decisions that are then approved by the Board — in effect, the RBI Central Board has abdicated its responsibilities to the people they were supposed to have oversight over, that is, the management.

A normal governance practice is to create committees of a board with specific mandates and come back to the board for decisions, rather than take decisions. All decisions are taken by the board. In the case of the RBI, all the general powers of the Central Board have been delegated to the Committee of the Central Board — the Committee of the Central Board virtually can do everything that the Central Board can, under the RBI Act. This defeats the spirit of collective decision-making at the Central Board-level and circumvents the necessity of obtaining votes of the majority of members of the Central Board. The minutes of the Committee are placed before the Central Board; this serves little purpose as decisions are already taken and members did not participate in them. The Central Board effectively becomes responsible for all decisions of the Committee without deliberations — while the Committee has no accountability on how it discharges its duties.

The regulation that empowered this Committee to transact all the business of the Central Board was made in 1949. For decades, the RBI board has functioned in a manner in which it did not deliberate on the most important decisions of the functioning of the RBI. This suited the management, which did not have public accountability in this unusual set-up. The management’s functioning has consequently become a black box with no scrutiny. The Board functions in a manner that would not be acceptable even for a private company as it would violate company law. Today, Parliament may find fault with the demonetisation decision and blame the RBI for not asserting its powers or the governor for not doing his job properly. But if the Board continues to function in this manner, the problem will remain.

A related issue is that of transparency. The RBI does not make the Board agenda or minutes public. This lack of transparency is not just about this episode, when an RTI enquiry about Board minutes was turned down. Even the minutes of Board meetings held five years ago are not made public. If the Board was required to make its proceedings public, would it have continued to behave in this manner or would public scrutiny have prevented such functioning?

This takes us to the question of what is gained by transparency. Why are the agenda and minutes for board meetings of regulators or central banks in India and abroad made public? In the minutes, only a few specific decisions, such as those related to specific companies or trade secrets that the law prevents regulators from revealing, are held back. The answer lies in the understanding that along with transparency comes autonomy. When participants know that discussions of the meeting will be made public, they, as well as those who may be sending letters or advice to the Board, behave more responsibly. This reduces the chances of the Board being pressured or taking hasty or irresponsible decisions.

Parliament must examine in detail the functioning of the RBI Central Board. The RBI must be required to make public minutes of all past meetings of the Central Board. The agenda of every meeting should henceforth be public. If there are to be any exceptions based on national security, it is Parliament that should decide. The Board must not be allowed to abdicate its responsibility. Unless Parliament amends the law and enforces a well-functioning Board, the RBI will continue to be a weak institution — and fertile ground for further mistakes.

The writer is professor, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, Delhi

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  1. R
    Rakesh Kochhar
    Jan 14, 2017 at 1:21 pm
    Demonetisation is the real reason why Raghu Rajan was dispatched . Expect more autocrat behaviour from BJP /RSS govt and don't be surprised. As an eternal optimist I hope Modi's decisions are correct.
    Reply
    1. H
      Hemant Kumar
      Jan 14, 2017 at 1:27 pm
      This writer is a bumper in the road as she likes to open the can of worms of fruitless discussions which remain inconclusive. And India's progress cannot be tethered to the views of such obscurantist writers. They are like hawkers selling cocaine for profit and care two hoots about poor. Mr. Modi while undertaking a decisive step of demonetization is helping poor.
      Reply
      1. O
        Onkar Singh
        Jan 15, 2017 at 9:54 am
        The PM is the most opaque person after 50 days when the pain of the country has not subsided,like a true gladiator ( Bhim) he has not presented himself at a " Chowrasta"!!!!!A big braggart!!!!
        Reply
        1. O
          Onkar Singh
          Jan 14, 2017 at 4:51 pm
          When you want to make the working of the RBI come under the scrutiny of the Parliament,the first thing the Indian Politician will look for is how to make money from the working of the RBI.Otherwise how could you see the PM Modi using himself in the Jio promotion campaign? Don't give topsy turvy suggestions.T he politics of this country has already touched the lowest levels possible under Modi.Give suggestions wherein politicians don't meddle in financial affairs,judicial affairs.Let these be beyond their purview.
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            Ash
            Jan 14, 2017 at 5:59 pm
            Modiji never said he was doing it for a socialist move.How does it become socialist anyway? Aim was to capture black money.It failed miserably in that respect.As for lenses we all see through some lens or the other.
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            1. A
              Ash
              Jan 14, 2017 at 6:13 pm
              Rajan is renowned internationally.He is well known and respected.Pity this govt doesn't value merit or stature.
              Reply
              1. A
                Ash
                Jan 14, 2017 at 6:06 pm
                To demonetise or not should have been a RBI decision,not the govt.The govt doesn't have the guts to say it took the decision and is trying to say that RBI took the decision.
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                1. A
                  Ash
                  Jan 14, 2017 at 6:09 pm
                  Merit was never valued much here,but now merit is considered a stigma and not to be touched.Even an Autocrat needs people with merit,but not here.
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                    Ash
                    Jan 14, 2017 at 6:04 pm
                    Seems Modiji's followers see any discussion as a waste of time.Which is why the ban of notes was a disaster.No doubt the people involved thought there was no need for discussion,as the master had already taken a decision.Wonder whether being a 'yes man' is the main qualification.lt;br/gt;Take Mr Subramanium Swamy,not a squeak out of him.
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                    1. B
                      Big b
                      Jan 14, 2017 at 12:07 pm
                      Agree. How can RBI agree to govt decision in less than 24 hrs. Mr. U. Patel should resign taking moral responsibility and some good economist should be hired like Dr. Rajan.
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                      1. J
                        Jim
                        Jan 15, 2017 at 8:40 am
                        Ch000tiyas like you need to be milked dry. Glad congress did this to you. You deserved it
                        Reply
                        1. J
                          Jim
                          Jan 15, 2017 at 8:37 am
                          Once you start making everything public RBI will become like most govt dept and politicians. It will do nothing, will sit on key decisions deliberating and this will do irreparable harmlt;br/gt;lt;br/gt;As citizen I am interested in the outcome and not in the mechanicslt;br/gt;lt;br/gt;Tomorrow you will say please bring IB and RAW under RTI
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                          1. J
                            Jim
                            Jan 15, 2017 at 8:52 am
                            STEP 1: GOVT REQUESTED RBI TO GIVE A REALLY QUICK CONSIDERATION ON DEMONETIZATION, URED FULL SUPPORT AND ENSURE IT REMAINS SECRET FOR OBVIOUS GOOD REASONSlt;br/gt;lt;br/gt;STEP 2: RBI GOT ITS MOST EMPOWERED TEAM TOGETHER AND DELIBERATED FOR AN ENTIRE DAYlt;br/gt;lt;br/gt;lt;br/gt;STEP 3: RBI CONVE ITS DECISION TO DEMONETIZE AND HIGH LEVEL ACTION PLANlt;br/gt;lt;br/gt;STEP 4: GOVT URED THE POLITICAL COVER AND PM BRAVELY FRONTED THIS DECISION BY PERSONALLY ANNOUNCINGlt;br/gt;lt;br/gt;lt;br/gt;NOW WHAT IS WRONG AT ALL IN THE ABOVE PROCESS?lt;br/gt;lt;br/gt;IT SHOWS GREAT TEAM WORK. DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION. A VERY AGILE WORKING. lt;br/gt;lt;br/gt;ORGANISATION'S LIKE GOOGLE DO THIS DAY IN AND DAY OUT WHICH IS WHY THEY ARE AT THE PINNACLE OF HISTORY
                            Reply
                            1. J
                              Jim
                              Jan 15, 2017 at 8:42 am
                              Well said. But aah you got the socialist goat
                              Reply
                              1. J
                                Jim
                                Jan 15, 2017 at 8:44 am
                                What are you going to do with this transparency except throw blockers in path of the rbi governor and satisfy your socialist egos?
                                Reply
                                1. P
                                  PCKULKARNI
                                  Jan 14, 2017 at 5:55 am
                                  RR was kicked out to facilitate demonetisation. Urjit Patel may be a competant person but he cannot resist pressure.
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                                    Pmp
                                    Jan 14, 2017 at 7:02 am
                                    Does the article mean that the earlier dispensations and parliament was in deep slumber till now and a bolt of enlightenment has struck the author?.the arrangement suited the earlier machinations and now that the horse has bolted,wisdom has dawned.
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                                    1. P
                                      Prasad
                                      Jan 14, 2017 at 6:27 am
                                      exactly, a team under PM was working on it while RBI was completely kept in the dark till Nov 7th. The new notes were printed parallel to introducing higher denomination notes and nothing to do with demonetisation as propagated. If the RBI was taken into confidence and included in the plan even at governor level, atleast a critical level of new notes could have been printed before this exercise was launched. Having only 96000 crores in new notes, 14 lakh crores were removed. How does that make sense?
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                                      1. K
                                        K SHESHU
                                        Jan 14, 2017 at 2:13 pm
                                        The RBI has become a ' restricted board of inaction'
                                        Reply
                                        1. Y
                                          Yogesh
                                          Jan 14, 2017 at 11:04 am
                                          At least 90% is now under Tax Net
                                          Reply
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                                            ak dev
                                            Jan 14, 2017 at 12:30 am
                                            It's stupid suggestion that Parliament must examine in detail the functioning of the RBI Central Board. Same thing can be suggested for many other autonomous insutions. Parliament's prime responsibility is to make laws and it should not interfere in executive functioning.
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