Raja-Mandala: A bridge to Sri Lanka

The causeway across the Palk Strait could become the most powerful symbol of South Asia’s new regionalism.

Written by C. Raja Mohan | Updated: September 15, 2015 12:53 am
Ram Setu, Hanuman Bridge, India Sri Lanka bridge, Palk Strait, India Sri Lanka relation, Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Narendra Modi, Sethusamudram, latest news, india sri lanka, sri lanka indian express, express column Sri Lanka’s Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe is received by Commerce and Industry Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on his arrival at IGI Airport in New Delhi. (PTI Photo)

Call it the “Ram Setu” or “Hanuman Bridge”, the stretch of low-lying banks that connect India to Sri Lanka across the Palk Strait is very much part of the subcontinent’s Ramayana lore. Lord Ram, the story goes, built this bridge with the assistance of Hanuman’s monkey army, walked into Lanka to rescue his consort Sita from King Ravana. That the story has little basis in science is beside the point. What is interesting is the possibility that New Delhi and Colombo can now turn that myth into reality by building a causeway across the 30 km of water between Dhanushkodi near Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu and Talaimannar in northern Sri Lanka.

Promoting connectivity, within and across national boundaries, has been a major priority for Prime Minister Narendra Modi. His Sri Lankan counterpart, Ranil Wickremesinghe, who is visiting Delhi this week, has been a convert to connectivity long before Modi burst upon India’s national scene. When he was PM of Sri Lanka more than a decade ago, Wickremesinghe had proposed the construction of a land bridge across the Palk Strait. An unenthusiastic Delhi and Chennai said “No, thank you.” What gained political traction instead was the proposal for dredging a shipping channel — the Sethusamudram — in the shallow waters around the tip of peninsular India.

But the prospect that the Sethusamudram canal would cut across the Ram Setu stirred significant opposition from Hindu groups. The environmentalists too expressed strong reservations against a project that could threaten the sensitive marine ecosystem in the Palk Strait. The Sethusamudram project would have deepened the divide between India and Sri Lanka. At a time when much of the world was moving towards transborder transport and energy corridors, the Sethusamudram project wanted to dig the moat between the two countries deeper.

At precisely the moment Sri Lanka was rediscovering its geopolitical centrality in the Indian Ocean and developing ambitious plans to emerge as the maritime hub of the world’s southern seas, Delhi seemed strangely detached from the imperatives of deeper integration with Lanka. If India increasingly viewed Sri Lanka through the prism of the ethnic conflict between the Sinhalese and the Tamil minority, China began to put the emerald island at the very centre of its Indian Ocean strategy. Delhi’s inability to move forward on transborder infrastructure looked a lot worse in comparison to the dramatic expansion of China’s physical and economic connectivity to India’s neighbours — not just across the Himalayas but in the Indian Ocean as well.

All of India’s neighbours are now part of China’s “one belt, one road” initiative that seeks to integrate the Eurasian land mass as well as the Indian and Pacific Oceans through massive infrastructure projects.

Modi has promised to end India’s sleepwalking on regional connectivity. In his address to the Sri Lankan parliament in March this year, Modi cited the great Tamil poet Subramanya Bharathi to affirm Delhi’s strong commitment to “build a bridge” to Lanka. Modi also travelled to Talaimannar to inaugurate a railway line in northern Sri Lanka that India had built in the last few years. While India’s contribution to rebuilding infrastructure in northern Sri Lanka that was destroyed by the civil war is impressive, Delhi must now focus boldly on transborder connectivity with Sri Lanka.

Union Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari suggested a couple of months ago that Delhi was now ready to talk about Wickremesinghe’s “Hanuman Bridge”. Gadkari added that the Asian Development Bank was eager to support the project that could cost more than $5 billion. The Hanuman Bridge would connect the road and rail networks in both countries and ease the flow of goods and people across the Palk Strait. Not everyone, however, sees the Hanuman Bridge in positive terms.

Some in Lanka worry that the bridge would undermine its territorial sovereignty and integrity. It was the opposition in Tamil Nadu that compelled Delhi to turn its back on the Hanuman Bridge. This is not surprising, given the prolonged civil war in Sri Lanka and its regional consequences. It’s really up to Modi and Wickremesinghe to make the political and commercial case for the causeway and address the issues raised by opponents on both sides.

South Asian nations have been talking about building bridges across borders for nearly two decades. Over the last year and a half, Modi has lent a new urgency to these connectivity projects. Delhi has backed up the PM’s rhetoric with some actions, most notably the signing of the motor vehicle agreement with three eastern neighbours — Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal — earlier this year. It’s the Hanuman Bridge, however, that could become the most powerful symbol of the subcontinent’s new regionalism.

The writer is consulting editor on foreign affairs for ‘The Indian Express’ and a distinguished fellow at the Observer Research Foundation

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First Published on: September 15, 2015 12:00 am
  1. S
    Shan Weereratne
    Apr 10, 2016 at 2:43 am
    Nothing worse than having filthy Tamil Naadu miscreants crossing over to our land. It will turn SL also into squalid dump like India. Jaylathaa that moronic convict on a daily basis fans extremism and then to suggest a land link with our country? Just get lost.
    Reply
    1. S
      Senaratne
      Sep 15, 2015 at 1:22 pm
      The bridge maybe a potentially viable commercial venture or a project strengthening commercial ventures between the two nations but at this point in time it would most likely turn out to be a potential disaster, security wise, especially since it's being linked to Tamil Naadu!
      Reply
      1. J
        Jagan
        Sep 15, 2015 at 8:09 am
        Stupidity. Hindi-ans are the best at it.
        Reply
        1. G
          Giri
          Sep 16, 2015 at 9:51 am
          it would be better a bridge with high shipping clearance than a causeway, as a causeway would disrupt the sea current flow and waves which could be disastrous to travellers
          Reply
          1. J
            jacob jayachandra
            Sep 20, 2015 at 7:43 pm
            Road & Rail bridge between India & Srilanka It have been proposed to construct a Road & Rail bridge between India & Srilanka . If road & rail conection is done all goods & cargo will be given to Sri lanken harbours & Ports . So our South Indian Ports & harbours such as Tutucorin ,Vizhingham ,Kochi ,& The Proposed harbour at Colachal will not get any goods & cargo for shipment . Hence our economy will be severlly affected . This is because the Srilanken harbours are situated deep in Indian Ocean than our South Indian Ports . Further the importance of Southe India will be shifted to Srilanka & so Tourisem will be affected for Tamil Nadu & Keralla . Also the cash crops such as coconut , pepper , cordemen , cloves & rubber produced by cheap labour in Srlanka iwill be dumped into India at very low rates via the road & rail link & so the economy of Kerala & south Tamil Nadu will collapse . So there is no need for this road & rail bridge at the cost of Rs 25000 Crore (Rupees twenty five thousand crore ] which is to be taken as loan from AD Bank to increase our forigen loan burden on every citizen of India. Jacob jayachandra
            Reply
            1. K
              KPillai
              Sep 16, 2015 at 1:30 pm
              The cost is prohibitive. Surely there are far more important projects crying for investment.
              Reply
              1. K
                KSRao
                Sep 15, 2015 at 10:55 pm
                It is a very important step and in the right direction. If funds are short, it can be built on P-P-P model, and the money spent recovered over 50 years. Likewise, it is important that the east coast of India is connected with the western parts of several south-east Asian countries through a 'water' bridge. It should be possible to reach destinations in less than 24 hours (Walmart ferries stuff from China to US in 3-4 days), and should enable movement of fresh produce even without refrigeration. Business and contacts will flourish between countries in the region. Get ready for next ault. This should be a $100 bn opportunity.
                Reply
                1. K
                  KSRao
                  Sep 15, 2015 at 10:57 pm
                  It'll take take nearly 10 years to complete, and all mistrust will evaporate by then. Yes, certainly, business and tourism will flourish.
                  Reply
                  1. M
                    Mayur Singh Tomar
                    Sep 20, 2015 at 1:29 pm
                    it was SUGHRIVA'S monkey army not 's.tellectuals these days..i tell u..
                    Reply
                    1. P
                      Prasanna Khakre
                      Sep 15, 2015 at 9:19 am
                      Exactly, the history of two neighbors be written in a modern commercial as well as social context. Rather than dividing between 2 communities only because of quarrels, lets bridge the gap of enmity, distrust with a commercial venture.
                      Reply
                      1. R
                        RJ
                        Sep 15, 2015 at 10:24 am
                        A road and rail bridge between India and Sri Lanka would be a fantastic boon for both countries in terms of economic benefits, cultural exchanges and people-people interactions. The two prime ministers should resolve to make it a reality within 4 years. The two countries should also agree for free travel of citizens without visas.
                        Reply
                        1. R
                          Ramesh Grover
                          Sep 15, 2015 at 8:30 am
                          The write up is pointed, apt, and rational. If political intricacies domestically in both the countries are resolved, it needs to be pushed. One, however, wonders whether 2 leaders can do it, though it makes sense, and may be a game changer regionally and domestically in many perceptible or imperceptible ways. The mindset in India and Sri Lanka remains major stumbling blocks.
                          Reply
                          1. R
                            raj
                            Sep 15, 2015 at 10:06 am
                            We are going to give billions for the development of Sri Lanka. The already existing industries in India will slowly switch to Sri Lanka because of strategically located
                            Reply
                            1. R
                              rohitchandavarker
                              Sep 15, 2015 at 11:36 am
                              It seems to be a case of making up for lost time & lost opportunities. There were limitless possibilities to engage with various countries & further our national interests in a variety of areas & spheres these past few years. But we allowed China to race ahead & now its catching up time. The past ten years of UPA were marred by corruption & non governance. However, even on the foreign policy front, India was found wanting barring the path breaking game changer, Indo US nuclear deal. This was the only singular crowning achievement.
                              Reply
                              1. S
                                So Jan
                                Oct 10, 2015 at 9:53 pm
                                please dont talk nonsense, if then more ships would come to india than srilanka, cos mot goods are to india, secondly borders etween countires will have customs and tax clearnaces. but the bridge will open a way for indian goods and culture to reach lanka in a more faster way, more lankans will come to india and more indians will go to lanka
                                Reply
                                1. S
                                  Susanta Shaw
                                  Sep 15, 2015 at 5:53 am
                                  I agree with the proposal of C Raja Mohan. I think building a bridge between Srilanka and India would be a historic action for the aspiring diplomacy of India around its territory.
                                  Reply
                                  1. S
                                    Sanath
                                    Sep 16, 2015 at 12:48 pm
                                    We don't trust India at all. So the ppl in SL say no thank you. Sri Lanka cannot be controlled like Nepal or other Indian neighbors.
                                    Reply
                                    1. S
                                      Sanath
                                      Sep 16, 2015 at 12:49 pm
                                      Well NO THANK YOU
                                      Reply
                                      1. D
                                        Devji
                                        Sep 15, 2015 at 11:32 am
                                        this is a fantasctic project that could propel India image in International level. And it is better to call this bridge as Phalk Bridge than giving mythical name.
                                        Reply
                                        1. V
                                          vasuv
                                          Sep 15, 2015 at 6:36 am
                                          A very good proposal. It will sound an appropriate closure of Sethusamudram Project.
                                          Reply
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