Having an optimistic outlook on life – a general expectation that good things will happen – may help people live longer, according to a new Harvard study. The study found that women who were optimistic had a significantly reduced risk of dying from several major causes of death – including cancer, heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease, and infection – over an eight-year period, compared with women who were less optimistic.
“While most medical and public health efforts today focus on reducing risk factors for diseases, evidence has been mounting that enhancing psychological resilience may also make a difference,” said Eric Kim, research fellow at the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health in the US.
“Our new findings suggest that we should make efforts to boost optimism, which has been shown to be associated with healthier behaviours and healthier ways of coping with life challenges,” said Kim.
The study also found that healthy behaviours only partially explain the link between optimism and reduced mortality risk. One other possibility is that higher optimism directly impacts our biological systems, Kim said.
The study analysed data from 2004 to 2012 from 70,000 women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study, a long-running study tracking women’s health via surveys every two years.
They looked at participants’ levels of optimism and other factors that might play a role in how optimism may affect mortality risk, such as race, high blood pressure, diet, and physical activity.
The most optimistic women had a nearly 30 per cent lower risk of dying from any of the diseases analysed in the study compared with the least optimistic, the study found.
The most optimistic women had a 16 per cent lower risk of dying from cancer; 38 per cent lower risk of dying from heart disease; 39 per cent lower risk of dying from stroke; 38 per cent lower risk of dying from respiratory disease; and 52 per cent lower risk of dying from infection, it found.
While other studies have linked optimism with reduced risk of early death from cardiovascular problems, this was the first to find a link between optimism and reduced risk from other major causes.
“Previous studies have shown that optimism can be altered with relatively uncomplicated and low-cost interventions – even something as simple as having people write down and think about the best possible outcomes for various areas of their lives, such as careers or friendships,” said postdoctoral research fellow Kaitlin Hagan.
“Encouraging use of these interventions could be an innovative way to enhance health in the future,” said Hagan.
The study appears in the American Journal of Epidemiology.