In a recent research, scientists have discovered that a certain kind of protein present in wheat can trigger the inflammation of chronic health conditions such as multiple sclerosis, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis besides contributing towards the development of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity.
The research turns the spotlight onto a different family of proteins found in wheat called amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs).
It shows the consumption of ATIs can lead to the development of inflammation in tissues beyond the gut, including the lymph nodes, kidneys, spleen and brain.
Evidence suggests that ATIs can worsen the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, lupus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as well as inflammatory bowel disease.
ATIs make up no more than four per cent of wheat proteins but can trigger powerful immune reactions in the gut that can spread to other tissues in the body.
Lead researcher Detlef Schuppan explained, “As well as contributing to the development of bowel-related inflammatory conditions, we believe that ATIs can promote inflammation of other immune-related chronic conditions outside of the bowel.’
“The type of gut inflammation seen in non-coeliac gluten sensitivity differs from that caused by coeliac disease, and we do not believe that this is triggered by gluten proteins. Instead, we demonstrated that ATIs from wheat, that are also contaminating commercial gluten, activate specific types of immune cells in the gut and other tissues, thereby potentially worsening the symptoms of pre-existing inflammatory illnesses, “ she said.
Clinical studies will commence now to explore in more detail the role that ATIs play on chronic health conditions.
“We are hoping that this research can lead us towards being able to recommend an ATI-free diet to help treat a variety of potentially serious immunological disorders” added Schuppan.
Further to inflaming chronic health conditions outside of the bowel, ATIs may contribute to the development on non-coeliac gluten sensitivity.
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This condition is now an accepted medical diagnosis for people who do not have coeliac disease but benefit from a gluten-free diet.
Intestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain and irregular bowel movements, are frequently reported, which can make it difficult to distinguish from IBS.
However, extraintestinal symptoms can assist with diagnosis, which include headaches, joint pain and eczema.
These symptoms typically appear after the consumption of gluten-containing food and improve rapidly on a gluten-free diet. Yet, gluten does not appear to cause the condition.
The study was presented UEG Week 2016.
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