Writers on the left

A definitive history of the Progressive Writers’ Movement, which put Urdu literature on the path of social realism.

Published on:April 26, 2014 4:35 am

Book: Liking Progress, Loving Change: A Literary History of the Progressive Writers’ Movement in Urdu
Author: Rakhshanda Jalil
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Pages: 482 pages
Price: Rs 1,495

Muhammad Umar Memon

The Progressive Writers’ Movement (PWM) was the brainchild of a handful of scions from upper-class Indian families studying in England in the late 1920s and early 1930s. There, they imbibed the spirit of “liberté, egalité, fraternité” that had permeated Europe since the French Revolution and were also exposed to socialist ideology. Together, these two strands of thought gelled for them into an acute awareness of the situation back home — an India groaning under not just British colonial rule but also under its own trenchant practice of social inequality, which left the greater swathe of the population disenfranchised, and its own centuries-old religious obscurantism.

Fired by revolutionary zeal, they drew up a manifesto (which was to undergo changes during PWM’s roughly 25-year life, in tandem with developments in the Soviet ideology percolating through the Communist Party of India (CPI)). The fiery young men returned home determined to right all the wrongs, mainly through the production of socially aware literature that focused on what the philosopher Edmund Husserl calls die Lebenswelt (the “concrete world of life”). A collection of nine short stories and a play appeared under the title Angaarey (Embers) in 1932 and was promptly banned by the British colonial government to placate the Muslim population whose spokespersons had stood up in arms against what they perceived to be the collection’s highly objectionable contents. The authors of the doomed collection were Sajjad Zaheer, Ahmed Ali, Mahmuduzzafar (three of the signatories to the manifesto) and Rashid Jahan, a doctor by profession and the sole woman writer of the quartet.

Four years later, on April 9, 1936, they launched the All-India Progressive Writers’ Association (AIPWA) during a conference at Lucknow, which was presided over by Munshi Premchand and blessed by major nationalist figures, including Jawaharlal Nehru.
This amazing work of exhaustive scholarship by Rakhshanda Jalil tells the story of this movement, its dictatorial chokehold over literary production, its considerable achievements and its ultimate failure.

Unlike most Urdu works on the PWM, however, her study does not begin with the two seminal dates of 1932 and 1936. It begins with antecedents that go back to the Revolt of 1857. This is for two reasons: (1) to dispel the notion that the PWM was the inventor of “progressivism” in literature —  a fluid term since traces of progressive ideas are easily found even in pre-modern times (although the term had acquired a sense of urgency for Indian Muslims since the Revolt: how to chart the future course of their political life in the wake of their defeat); and hence (2) to show that Muslims were the main actors in the movement which, though literary, was inevitably implicated in politics. Then again, mostly Urdu writers filled the AIPWA’s ranks and the output in Urdu was quantitatively more voluminous than any other Indian language. Inasmuch as the majority of Urdu writers were Muslim, this is …continued »

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