Recalling 1995 genocide: In indictment of Dutch forces, tale of a larger failure in Srebrenica

A Dutch UN peacekeeping contingent had fled in the face of a Serb attack on their base in Potocari, where the Bosnian Muslims had sought refuge.

Written by Sameer Arshad Khatlani | Published:July 7, 2017 12:28 am
srebrenica, bosnian war, netherlands bosnia, bosnian massacre, bosnia news, netherlands news, world news, latest news, indian express The Serbs had launched a campaign of genocide in 1992 for a “racially pure statelet” after Bosnia voted for secession from Yugoslavia. (File Photo)

For years, Ramiz Nukic quarried human remains in the forests around Srebrenica, finding almost daily the bones of someone massacred here in July 1995. The little Bosnian town on the banks of the Drina river had a Muslim majority until Serb forces swooped on it — and butchered some 8,000 residents in a matter of days. They filmed their action, stopping the slaughter only when the camera batteries ran out.

Nukic, who lost his father and brother in the massacre — Europe’s worst since World War II — began looking for their remains after returning home in 1999. The bones he found had helped authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina identify 300 victims until July 2015, when The Independent profiled him 20 years after the massacre. On June 27, The Hague Court of Appeals ruled the Netherlands was “partially liable” for about 350 of the Srebrenica murders, largely upholding a lower court’s ruling from 2014, and underscoring the failure of the international community in preventing the massacre.

A Dutch UN peacekeeping contingent had fled in the face of a Serb attack on their base in Potocari, where the Bosnian Muslims had sought refuge. They were outnumbered as the Serbs hauled men and boys into buses and trucks. Around 2,000 people were executed immediately on July 11, 1995 — subsequently, another 6,000 were hunted down and butchered in the forests. Some were tortured to death, others shot or hanged; some were left to die with booby traps to kill those trying to save them. Piles of bodies were scooped up by bulldozers and dumped in pits. In Kravica, Serb general Ratko Mladic promised 1,000 Bosnian Muslims that they would be united with their families before executing them. The Independent quoted a survivor later recalling at The Hague war crimes tribunal that he “walked over dead bodies” to safety.

The Serbs had launched a campaign of genocide in 1992 for a “racially pure statelet” after Bosnia voted for secession from Yugoslavia. Eastern Bosnia bore the brunt of the campaign, where food embargoes and bombings forced residents out of their homes. The Serbs besieged Srebrenica for three years before they overran it, as 15,000 Bosniaks fled to the nearby mountains. The rest sought refuge at the Dutch peacekeeping base. The invasion had caught them offguard — the UN had declared the town as one of six protected safe areas, and its population had swollen from 9,000 to 42,000 in 1993.

As the Serbs started shelling peacekeepers’ positions, pleas of the Dutch forces for air support went unanswered. This, despite a UN report warning in April 1993 of a “potential massacre in which there could be 25,000 victims if Serb forces were to enter Srebrenica”. In 2016, The Observer quoted Serb politician Radovan Karadžic of having promised the Bosnian Serb Assembly that there would be “blood up to the knees” if his army entered the town.

The Hague court found the Dutch peacekeepers to be ill-equipped and lacking in “strong leadership”. Presiding judge Gepke Dulek-Schermers noted that they “knew or should have known that the men were not only being screened”. The judge added that the victims were in real danger of being subjected to torture or execution, and “by having the men leave the compound unreservedly, they were deprived of a chance of survival”. Dutch soldiers, the judge said, had facilitated the separation of the men and boys among the refugees.

The Observer report spoke of the “mass of evidence” that indicated that the fall of Srebrenica constituted a part of a policy by Britain, France, the US and the UN leadership in pursuit of “peace at any price; peace at the terrible expense of Srebrenica”. It said western powers could not be said to have known the extent of the massacre that would follow — but “the evidence demonstrates they were aware — or should have been — of Mladic’s declared intention to have the Bosniak Muslim population of the entire region ‘vanish completely’.”

A series of events had been building up to the genocide. In July 1992, non-Serbs in Celinac were prohibited from moving around after 4 pm. The Independent reported that they were not allowed to swim, fish, and gather in groups of over three, and to sell or exchange apartments. The world sat on its hands as the situation degenerated with the emergence of concentration camps, mass rapes and killings that culminated into mind-numbing “scenes from hell” written on “the darkest pages of history”, according to a judge in The Hague.

Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic, whose idea of nationalism is blamed for the massacre, was prosecuted for war crimes and died in prison. He was among over 20 people indicted for their involvement. Mladic was put on trial in 2011.

sameer.khatlani@expressindia.com

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  1. P
    ProudToBeIndian
    Jul 9, 2017 at 3:39 pm
    Dear Antony, I pray to the God that, you shoul find your lost father soon. It seems you don't know who is your father or your mother might have forgot the customer name. Why do you use fake names? Did anybody cheated your mother ? Don't spread lies, spread love. Serve all , love all. Bharat Mata Ki jai.
    Reply
    1. S
      Sivakumar
      Jul 9, 2017 at 11:15 am
      Violence and killing of humans has no justification and no room for civilised society
      Reply
      1. S
        Sivakumar
        Jul 9, 2017 at 11:13 am
        Very horrific poor people are being massacred, Iam sure the resultant of this horrific may have attributed to barbaric behaviour of some Islamic mullahs, any incidents involving Muslims is directly proportionate to their religious belief , the barbaric Islamic rulers have butchered millions and millions of other faiths for the last 1400 years of Islamic founded, their appe e for blood is not yet over, their Arrogance and impatience is detrimental to the world peace, absolutely the teaching of Islam violence and not an iota its a religion of peace
        Reply
        1. R
          r r
          Jul 9, 2017 at 8:54 am
          A very horrified incident similar to some other incidents in Pakistan and Bangaladesh 1) Shekhpura near Sialkot 2) Nokhali in East Pakistan
          Reply
          1. A
            Antony
            Jul 7, 2017 at 10:52 pm
            Muslims can make movies trying to find faults of other religions. Muslims can paint Hindu goddess in bad way. But if you depict child Aisha and many slave child molested MOHammed they spread terrorism. The innocent Cartoons And Muslim Terrorist Attack Against Charlie Hebdo At least 12 people were killed in a shooting at the offices of French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo Wednesday morning. How can the cartoons be so bad that Muslims spread terrorism? Multiple masked gunmen entered the building, opened fire on the writers, and escaped in a getaway car. The shooters reportedly yelled “Allahu Akhbar” in Arabic during the assault and “We have avenged the prophet” as they sped out of the office. Among the confirmed dead are two police officers and Stephane Charbonnier, a journalist and editorial director. French President Francois Hollande has called the shooting “a terrorist attack.” by Muslims.
            Reply
            1. A
              Antony
              Jul 9, 2017 at 5:07 am
              RSS troll with fake christian ID paid to comment on daily basis by RSS-IT cell spotted by real Antony!
              Reply
            2. T
              True indian
              Jul 7, 2017 at 3:20 pm
              I hope IE will cover the incident of srilankan army killed 1.5 lakhs of Tamil civilians on a single day on the last day of war with LTTE.
              Reply
              1. A
                Aryan Shah
                Jul 7, 2017 at 10:23 am
                I hope IE will soon release the long due article on kashmiri pandit genocide of 1991-1992 in Kashmir. If they don't they are the real bigots
                Reply
                1. L
                  Lovely
                  Jul 7, 2017 at 1:24 pm
                  They will not .
                  Reply
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